Matthew Chapter 1(玛窦福音)

Chapter 1

1 1 2 The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.


2 Abraham became the father of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers.


3 Judah became the father of Perez and Zerah, whose mother was Tamar. Perez became the father of Hezron, Hezron the father of Ram,


4 Ram the father of Amminadab. Amminadab became the father of Nahshon, Nahshon the father of Salmon,


5 Salmon the father of Boaz, whose mother was Rahab. Boaz became the father of Obed, whose mother was Ruth. Obed became the father of Jesse,


6 Jesse the father of David the king. David became the father of Solomon, whose mother had been the wife of Uriah.


7 3 Solomon became the father of Rehoboam, Rehoboam the father of Abijah, Abijah the father of Asaph.


8 Asaph became the father of Jehoshaphat, Jehoshaphat the father of Joram, Joram the father of Uzziah.


9 Uzziah became the father of Jotham, Jotham the father of Ahaz, Ahaz the father of Hezekiah.


10 Hezekiah became the father of Manasseh, Manasseh the father of Amos, 4 Amos the father of Josiah.


11 Josiah became the father of Jechoniah and his brothers at the time of the Babylonian exile.


12 After the Babylonian exile, Jechoniah became the father of Shealtiel, Shealtiel the father of Zerubbabel,


13 Zerubbabel the father of Abiud. Abiud became the father of Eliakim, Eliakim the father of Azor,


14 Azor the father of Zadok. Zadok became the father of Achim, Achim the father of Eliud,


15 Eliud the father of Eleazar. Eleazar became the father of Matthan, Matthan the father of Jacob,


16 Jacob the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary. Of her was born Jesus who is called the Messiah.


17 Thus the total number of generations from Abraham to David is fourteen generations; from David to the Babylonian exile, fourteen generations; from the Babylonian exile to the Messiah, fourteen generations. 5


18 6 Now this is how the birth of Jesus Christ came about. When his mother Mary was betrothed to Joseph, 7 but before they lived together, she was found with child through the holy Spirit.


19 Joseph her husband, since he was a righteous man, 8 yet unwilling to expose her to shame, decided to divorce her quietly.


20 Such was his intention when, behold, the angel of the Lord 9 appeared to him in a dream and said, "Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary your wife into your home. For it is through the holy Spirit that this child has been conceived in her.


21 She will bear a son and you are to name him Jesus, 10 because he will save his people from their sins."


22 All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet:


23 11 "Behold, the virgin shall be with child and bear a son, and they shall name him Emmanuel," which means "God is with us."


24 When Joseph awoke, he did as the angel of the Lord had commanded him and took his wife into his home.


25 He had no relations with her until she bore a son, 12 and he named him Jesus.


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1 [1:1-2:23] The infancy narrative forms the prologue of the gospel. Consisting of a genealogy and five stories, it presents the coming of Jesus as the climax of Israel's history, and the events of his conception, birth, and early childhood as the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. The genealogy is probably traditional material that Matthew edited. In its first two sections (Matthew 1:2-11) it was drawn from Ruth 4:18-22; 1 Chron 1-3. Except for Jechoniah, Shealtiel, and Zerubbabel, none of the names in the third section (Matthew 1:12-16) is found in any Old Testament genealogy. While the genealogy shows the continuity of God's providential plan from Abraham on, discontinuity is also present. The women Tamar (Matthew 1:3), Rahab and Ruth (Matthew 1:5), and the wife of Uriah, Bathsheba (Matthew 1:6), bore their sons through unions that were in varying degrees strange and unexpected. These "irregularities" culminate in the supreme "irregularity" of the Messiah's birth of a virgin mother; the age of fulfillment is inaugurated by a creative act of God. Drawing upon both biblical tradition and Jewish stories, Matthew portrays Jesus as reliving the Exodus experience of Israel and the persecutions of Moses. His rejection by his own people and his passion are foreshadowed by the troubled reaction of "all Jerusalem" to the question of the magi who are seeking the "newborn king of the Jews" (Matthew 2:2-3), and by Herod's attempt to have him killed. The magi who do him homage prefigure the Gentiles who will accept the preaching of the gospel. The infancy narrative proclaims who Jesus is, the savior of his people from their sins (Matthew 1:21), Emmanuel in whom "God is with us" (Matthew 1:23), and the Son of God (Matthew 2:15).

2 [1] The Son of David, the son of Abraham: two links of the genealogical chain are singled out. Although the later, David is placed first in order to emphasize that Jesus is the royal Messiah. The mention of Abraham may be due not only to his being the father of the nation Israel but to Matthew's interest in the universal scope of Jesus' mission; cf Genesis 22:18 ". . . . in your descendants all the nations of the earth shall find blessing."

3 [7] The successor of Abijah was not Asaph but Asa (see 1 Chron 3:10). Some textual witnesses read the latter name; however, Asaph is better attested. Matthew may have deliberately introduced the psalmist Asaph into the genealogy (and in Matthew 1:10 the prophet Amos) in order to show that Jesus is the fulfillment not only of the promises made to David (see 2 Sam 7) but of all the Old Testament.

4 [10] Amos: some textual witnesses read Amon, who was the actual successor of Manasseh (see 1 Chron 3:14).

5 [17] Matthew is concerned with fourteen generations, probably because fourteen is the numerical value of the Hebrew letters forming the name o,, , f David. In the second section of the genealogy (Matthew 1:6b-11), three kings of Judah, Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah, have been omitted (see 1 Chron 3:11-12), so that there are fourteen generations in that section. Yet the third (Matthew 1:12-16) apparently has only thirteen. Since Matthew here emphasizes that each section has fourteen, it is unlikely that the thirteen of the last was due to his oversight. Some scholars suggest that Jesus who is called the Messiah (Matthew 1:16b) doubles the final member of the chain: Jesus, born within the family of David, opens up the new age as Messiah, so that in fact there are fourteen generations in the third section. This is perhaps too subtle, and the hypothesis of a slip not on the part of Matthew but of a later scribe seems likely. On Messiah, see the note on Luke 2:11.

6 [18-25] This first story of the infancy narrative spells out what is summarily indicated in Matthew 1:16. The virginal conception of Jesus is the work of the Spirit of God. Joseph's decision to divorce Mary is overcome by the heavenly command that he take her into his home and accept the child as his own. The natural genealogical line is broken but the promises to David are fulfilled; through Joseph's adoption the child belongs to the family of David. Matthew sees the virginal conception as the fulfillment of Isaiah 7:14.

7 [18] Betrothed to Joseph: betrothal was the first part of the marriage, constituting a man and woman as husband and wife. Subsequent infidelity was considered adultery. The betrothal was followed some months later by the husband's taking his wife into his home, at which time normal married life began.

8 [19] A righteous man: as a devout observer of the Mosaic law, Joseph wished to break his union with someone whom he suspected of gross violation of the law. It is commonly said that the law required him to do so, but the texts usually given in support of that view, e.g., Deut 22:20-21 do not clearly pertain to Joseph's situation. Unwilling to expose her to shame: the penalty for proved adultery was death by stoning; cf Deut 22:21-23.

9 [20] The angel of the Lord: in the Old Testament a common designation of God in communication with a human being. In a dream: see Matthew 2:13, 19, 22. These dreams may be meant to recall the dreams of Joseph, son of Jacob the patriarch (Genesis 37:5-11:19). A closer parallel is the dream of Amram, father of Moses, related by Josephus (Antiquities 2,9,3; 212, 215-16).

10 [21] Jesus: in first-century Judaism the Hebrew name Joshua (Greek Iesous) meaning "Yahweh helps" was interpreted as "Yahweh saves."

11 [23] God is with us: God's promise of deliverance to Judah in Isaiah's time is seen by Matthew as fulfilled in the birth of Jesus, in whom God is with his people. The name Emmanuel is alluded to at the end of the gospel where the risen Jesus assures his disciples of his continued presence,". . . I am with you always, until the end of the age" (Matthew 28:20).

12 [25] Until she bore a son: the evangelist is concerned to emphasize that Joseph was not responsible for the conception of Jesus. The Greek word translated "until" does not imply normal marital conduct after Jesus' birth, nor does it exclude it.

Matthew Chapter 2

Chapter 2

1 1 When Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, in the days of King Herod, 2 behold, magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem,


2 saying, Where is the newborn king of the Jews? We saw his star 3 at its rising and have come to do him homage.


3 When King Herod heard this, he was greatly troubled, and all Jerusalem with him.


4 Assembling all the chief priests and the scribes of the people, he inquired of them where the Messiah was to be born. 4


5 They said to him, In Bethlehem of Judea, for thus it has been written through the prophet:


6 And you, Bethlehem, land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; since from you shall come a ruler, who is to shepherd my people Israel.'


7 Then Herod called the magi secretly and ascertained from them the time of the star's appearance.


8 He sent them to Bethlehem and said, Go and search diligently for the child. When you have found him, bring me word, that I too may go and do him homage.


9 After their audience with the king they set out. And behold, the star that they had seen at its rising preceded them, until it came and stopped over the place where the child was.


10 They were overjoyed at seeing the star,


11 5 and on entering the house they saw the child with Mary his mother. They prostrated themselves and did him homage. Then they opened their treasures and offered him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh.


12 And having been warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they departed for their country by another way.


13 6 When they had departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and said,Rise, take the child and his mother, flee to Egypt, 7 and stay there until I tell you. Herod is going to search for the child to destroy him.


14 Joseph rose and took the child and his mother by night and departed for Egypt.


15 8 He stayed there until the death of Herod, that what the Lord had said through the prophet might be fulfilled, Out of Egypt I called my son.


16 When Herod realized that he had been deceived by the magi, he became furious. He ordered the massacre of all the boys in Bethlehem and its vicinity two years old and under, in accordance with the time he had ascertained from the magi.


17 Then was fulfilled what had been said through Jeremiah the prophet:


18 9 A voice was heard in Ramah, sobbing and loud lamentation; Rachel weeping for her children, and she would not be consoled, since they were no more.


19 When Herod had died, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt


20 and said, Rise, take the child and his mother and go to the land of Israel, for those who sought the child's life are dead.10


21 He rose, took the child and his mother, and went to the land of Israel.


22 But when he heard that Archelaus was ruling over Judea in place of his father Herod, 11 he was afraid to go back there. And because he had been warned in a dream, he departed for the region of Galilee.


23 12 He went and dwelt in a town called Nazareth, so that what had been spoken through the prophets might be fulfilled, He shall be called a Nazorean.


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1 [1-12] The future rejection of Jesus by Israel and his acceptance by the Gentiles are retrojected into this scene of the narrative.

2 [1] In the days of King Herod: Herod reigned from 37 to 4 B.C. Magi: originally a designation of the Persian priestly caste, the word became used of those who were regarded as having more than human knowledge. Matthew's magi are astrologers.

3 [2] We saw his star: it was a common ancient belief that a new star appeared at the time of a ruler's birth. Matthew also draws upon the Old Testament story of Balaam, who had prophesied that A star shall advance from Jacob (Numbers 24:17), though there the star means not an astral phenomenon but the king himself.

4 [4] Herod's consultation with the chief priests and scribes has some similarity to a Jewish legend about the child Moses in which the sacred scribes warn Pharaoh about the imminent birth of one who will deliver Israel from Egypt and the king makes plans to destroy him. Matthew 2:11: Cf Psalm 72:10, 15; Isaiah 60:6. These Old Testament texts led to the interpretation of the magi as kings.

5 [11] Psalm 72:10; Psalm 72:15; Isaiah 60:6; These Old Testament texts led to the interpretation of the magi as Kings.

6 [13-23] Biblical and nonbiblical traditions about Moses are here applied to the child Jesus, though the dominant Old Testament type is not Moses but Israel (Matthew 2:15).

7 [13] Flee to Egypt: Egypt was a traditional place of refuge for those fleeing from danger in Palestine (see 1 Kings 11:40; Jeremiah 26:21), but the main reason why the child is to be taken to Egypt is that he may relive the Exodus experience of Israel.

8 [15] The fulfillment citation is taken from Hosea 11:1. Israel, God's son, was called out of Egypt at the time of the Exodus; Jesus, the Son of God, will similarly be called out of that land in a new exodus. The father-son relationship between God and the nation is set in a higher key. Here the son is not a group adopted as son of God, but the child who, as conceived by the holy Spirit, stands in unique relation to God. He is son of David and of Abraham, of Mary and of Joseph, but, above all, of God.

9 [18] Jeremiah 31:15 portrays Rachel, wife of the patriarch Jacob, weeping for her children taken into exile at the time of the Assyrian invasion of the northern kingdom (722-21 B.C.). Bethlehem was traditionally identified with Ephrath, the place near which Rachel was buried (see Genesis 35:19; 48:7), and the mourning of Rachel is here applied to her lost children of a later age. Ramah: about six miles north of Jerusalem. The lamentation of Rachel is so great as to be heard at a far distance.

10 [20] For those who sought the child's life are dead: Moses, who had fled from Egypt because the Pharaoh sought to kill him (see Exodus 2:15), was told to return there, for all the men who sought your life are dead (Exodus 4:19).

11 [22] With the agreement of the emperor Augustus, Archelaus received half of his father's kingdom, including Judea, after Herod's death. He had the title ethnarch (i.e., ruler of a nation) and reigned from 4 B.C. to A.D. 6.

12 [23] Nazareth . . . he shall be called a Nazorean: the tradition of Jesus' residence in Nazareth was firmly established, and Matthew sees it as being in accordance with the foreannounced plan of God. The town of Nazareth is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and no such prophecy can be found there. The vague expression through the prophets may be due to Matthew's seeing a connection between Nazareth and certain texts in which there are words with a remote similarity to the name of that town. Some such Old Testament texts are Isaiah 11:1 where the Davidic king of the future is called a bud (neser) that shall blossom from the roots of Jesse, and Judges 13:5, 7 where Samson, the future deliverer of Israel from the Philistines, is called one who shall be consecrated (a nazir) to God.

Matthew Chapter 3

Chapter 3

1 1 2 In those days John the Baptist appeared, preaching in the desert of Judea


2 (and) saying, Repent, 3 for the kingdom of heaven is at hand!


3 4 It was of him that the prophet Isaiah had spoken when he said: A voice of one crying out in the desert, 'Prepare the way of the Lord, make straight his paths.'


4 5 John wore clothing made of camel's hair and had a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey.


5 At that time Jerusalem, all Judea, and the whole region around the Jordan were going out to him


6 and were being baptized by him in the Jordan River as they acknowledged their sins. 6


7 When he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees 7 coming to his baptism, he said to them, You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath?


8 Produce good fruit as evidence of your repentance.


9 And do not presume to say to yourselves, 'We have Abraham as our father.' For I tell you, God can raise up children to Abraham from these stones.


10 Even now the ax lies at the root of the trees. Therefore every tree that does not bear good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire.


11 I am baptizing you with water, for repentance, but the one who is coming after me is mightier than I. I am not worthy to carry his sandals. He will baptize you with the holy Spirit and fire. 8


12 9 His winnowing fan is in his hand. He will clear his threshing floor and gather his wheat into his barn, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire.


13 10 Then Jesus came from Galilee to John at the Jordan to be baptized by him.


14 11 John tried to prevent him, saying, I need to be baptized by you, and yet you are coming to me?


15 Jesus said to him in reply, Allow it now, for thus it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness. Then he allowed him.


16 12 After Jesus was baptized, he came up from the water and behold, the heavens were opened (for him), and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove (and) coming upon him.


17 And a voice came from the heavens, saying, This is my beloved Son, 13 with whom I am well pleased.


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1 [1] Unlike Luke, Matthew says nothing of the Baptist's origins and does not make him a relative of Jesus. The desert of Judea: the barren region west of the Dead Sea extending up the Jordan valley.

2 [1-12] Here Matthew takes up the order of Jesus' ministry found in the gospel of Mark, beginning with the preparatory preaching of John the Baptist.

3 [2] Repent: the Baptist calls for a change of heart and conduct, a turning of one's life from rebellion to obedience towards God. The kingdom of heaven is at hand: heaven (literally, the heavens) is a substitute for the name God that was avoided by devout Jews of the time out of reverence. The expression the kingdom of heaven occurs only in the gospel of Matthew. It means the effective rule of God over his people. In its fullness it includes not only human obedience to God's word, but the triumph of God over physical evils, supremely over death. In the expectation found in Jewish apocalyptic, the kingdom was to be ushered in by a judgment in which sinners would be condemned and perish, an expectation shared by the Baptist. This was modified in Christian understanding where the kingdom was seen as being established in stages, culminating with the parousia of Jesus.

4 [3] See the note on John 1:23.

5 [4] The clothing of John recalls the austere dress of the prophet Elijah (2 Kings 1:8). The expectation of the return of Elijah from heaven to prepare Israel for the final manifestation of God's kingdom was widespread, and according to Matthew this expectation was fulfilled in the Baptist's ministry (Matthew 11:14; 17:11-13).

6 [6] Ritual washing was practiced by various groups in Palestine between 150 B.C. and A.D. 250. John's baptism may have been related to the purificatory washings of the Essenes at Qumran.

7 [7] Pharisees and Sadducees: the former were marked by devotion to the law, written and oral, and the scribes, experts in the law, belonged predominantly to this group. The Sadducees were the priestly aristocratic party, centered in Jerusalem. They accepted as scripture only the first five books of the Old Testament, followed only the letter of the law, rejected the oral legal traditions, and were opposed to teachings not found in the Pentateuch, such as the resurrection of the dead. Matthew links both of these groups together as enemies of Jesus (Matthew 16:1, 6, 11, 12; cf Mark 8:11-13, 15). The threatening words that follow are addressed to them rather than to the crowds as in Luke 3:7. The coming wrath: the judgment that will bring about the destruction of unrepentant sinners.

8 [11] Baptize you with the holy Spirit and fire: the water baptism of John will be followed by an immersion of the repentant in the cleansing power of the Spirit of God, and of the unrepentant in the destroying power of God's judgment. However, some see the holy Spirit and fire as synonymous, and the effect of this baptism as either purification or destruction. See the note on Luke 3:16

9 [12] The discrimination between the good and the bad is compared to the procedure by which a farmer separates wheat and chaff. The winnowing fan was a forklike shovel with which the threshed wheat was thrown into the air. The kernels fell to the ground; the light chaff, blown off by the wind, was gathered and burned up.

10 [13-17] The baptism of Jesus is the occasion on which he is equipped for his ministry by the holy Spirit and proclaimed to be the Son of God.

11 [14-15] This dialogue, peculiar to Matthew, reveals John's awareness of Jesus' superiority to him as the mightier one who is coming and who will baptize with the holy Spirit (Matthew 3:11). His reluctance to admit Jesus among the sinners whom he is baptizing with water is overcome by Jesus' response. To fulfill all righteousness: in this gospel to fulfill usually refers to fulfillment of prophecy, and righteousness to moral conduct in conformity with God's will. Here, however, as in Matthew 5:6; 6:33, righteousness seems to mean the saving activity of God. To fulfill all righteousness is to submit to the plan of God for the salvation of the human race. This involves Jesus' identification with sinners; hence the propriety of his accepting John's baptism.

12 [16] The Spirit . . . coming upon him: cf Isaiah 42:1.

13 [17] This is my beloved Son: the Marcan address to Jesus (Mark 1:11) is changed into a proclamation. The Father's voice speaks in terms that reflect Isaiah 42:1; Psalm 2:7; Genesis 22:2.


Matthew Chapter 4

Chapter 4

1 1 Then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the desert to be tempted by the devil.


2  He fasted for forty days and forty nights, 2 and afterwards he was hungry.


3  The tempter approached and said to him,If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become loaves of bread.


4 3 He said in reply,It is written: 'One does not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes forth from the mouth of God.'


5 4 Then the devil took him to the holy city, and made him stand on the parapet of the temple,


6 and said to him,If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down. For it is written: 'He will command his angels concerning you and 'with their hands they will support you, lest you dash your foot against a stone.'


7 Jesus answered him,Again it is written, 'You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test.'


8 Then the devil took him up to a very high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world in their magnificence,


9 and he said to him,All these I shall give to you, if you will prostrate yourself and worship me.5


10 At this, Jesus said to him,Get away, Satan! It is written: The Lord, your God, shall you worship and him alone shall you serve.'


11 Then the devil left him and, behold, angels came and ministered to him.


12 6 When he heard that John had been arrested, he withdrew to Galilee.


13 He left Nazareth and went to live in Capernaum by the sea, in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali,


14 that what had been said through Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled:


15 Land of Zebulun and land of Naphtali, the way to the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles,


16 the people who sit in darkness have seen a great light, on those dwelling in a land overshadowed by death light has arisen.


17 7 From that time on, Jesus began to preach and say,Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.


18 8 As he was walking by the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon who is called Peter, and his brother Andrew, casting a net into the sea; they were fishermen.


19 He said to them,Come after me, and I will make you fishers of men.


20 9 At once they left their nets and followed him.


21 He walked along from there and saw two other brothers, James, the son of Zebedee, and his brother John. They were in a boat, with their father Zebedee, mending their nets. He called them,


22 and immediately they left their boat and their father and followed him.


23 10 He went around all of Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, 11 proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom, and curing every disease and illness among the people.


24 12 His fame spread to all of Syria, and they brought to him all who were sick with various diseases and racked with pain, those who were possessed, lunatics, and paralytics, and he cured them.


25 And great crowds from Galilee, the Decapolis, 13 Jerusalem, and Judea, and from beyond the Jordan followed him.


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1 [1-11] Jesus, proclaimed Son of God at his baptism, is subjected to a triple temptation. Obedience to the Father is a characteristic of true sonship, and Jesus is tempted by the devil to rebel against God, overtly in the third case, more subtly in the first two. Each refusal of Jesus is expressed in language taken from the Book of Deuteronomy (Deut 8:3; 6:13, 16). The testings of Jesus resemble those of Israel during the wandering in the desert and later in Canaan, and the victory of Jesus, the true Israel and the true Son, contrasts with the failure of the ancient and disobedientson, the old Israel. In the temptation account Matthew is almost identical with Luke; both seem to have drawn upon the same source.

2 [2] Forty days and forty nights: the same time as that during which Moses remained on Sinai (Exodus 24:18). The time reference, however, seems primarily intended to recall the forty years during which Israel was tempted in the desert (Deut 8:2).

3 [4] Cf Deut 8:3. Jesus refuses to use his power for his own benefit and accepts whatever God wills.

4 [5-7] The devil supports his proposal by an appeal to the scriptures, Psalm 91:11a, 12. Unlike Israel (Deut 6:16), Jesus refuses totest God by demanding from him an extraordinary show of power.

5 [9] The worship of Satan to which Jesus is tempted is probably intended to recall Israel's worship of false gods. His refusal is expressed in the words of Deut 6:13.

6 [12-17] Isaiah's prophecy of the light rising upon Zebulun and Naphtali (Isaiah 8:22-9:1) is fulfilled in Jesus' residence at Capernaum. The territory of these two tribes was the first to be devastated (733-32 B.C.) at the time of the Assyrian invasion. In order to accommodate Jesus' move to Capernaum to the prophecy, Matthew speaks of that town as beingin the region of Zebulun and Naphtali (Matthew 4:13), whereas it was only in the territory of the latter, and he understands the sea of the prophecy, the Mediterranean, as the sea of Galilee.

7 [17] At the beginning of his preaching Jesus takes up the words of John the Baptist (Matthew 3:2) although with a different meaning; in his ministry the kingdom of heaven has already begun to be present (Matthew 12:28).

8 [18-22] The call of the first disciples promises them a share in Jesus' work and entails abandonment of family and former way of life. Three of the four, Simon, James, and John, are distinguished among the disciples by a closer relation with Jesus (Matthew 17:1; 26:37).

9 [20] Here and in Matthew 4:22, as in Mark (Mark 1:16-20) and unlike the Lucan account (Luke 5:1-11), the disciples' response is motivated only by Jesus' invitation, an element that emphasizes his mysterious power.

10 [23-25] This summary of Jesus' ministry concludes the narrative part of the first book of Matthew's gospel (Matthew 3-4). The activities of his ministry are teaching, proclaiming the gospel, and healing; cf Matthew 9:35.

11 [23] Their synagogues: Matthew usually designates the Jewish synagogues as their synagogue(s) (Matthew 9:35; 10:17; 12:9; 13:54) or, in address to Jews, your synagogues (Matthew 23:34), an indication that he wrote after the break between church and synagogue.

12 [24] Syria: the Roman province to which Palestine belonged.

13 [25] The Decapolis: a federation of Greek cities in Palestine, originally ten in number, all but one east of the Jordan.


Matthew Chapter 5

Chapter 5

1 1 When he saw the crowds, 2 he went up the mountain, and after he had sat down, his disciples came to him.


2 He began to teach them, saying:


3 3 Blessed are the poor in spirit, 4 for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.


4 5 Blessed are they who mourn, for they will be comforted.


5 6 Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the land.


6 Blessed are they who hunger and thirst for righteousness, 7 for they will be satisfied.


7 Blessed are the merciful, for they will be shown mercy.


8 8 Blessed are the clean of heart, for they will see God.


9 Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God.


10 Blessed are they who are persecuted for the sake of righteousness, 9 for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.


11 Blessed are you when they insult you and persecute you and utter every kind of evil against you (falsely) because of me.


12 10 Rejoice and be glad, for your reward will be great in heaven. Thus they persecuted the prophets who were before you.


13 11 12 You are the salt of the earth. But if salt loses its taste, with what can it be seasoned? It is no longer good for anything but to be thrown out and trampled underfoot.


14 You are the light of the world. A city set on a mountain cannot be hidden.


15 Nor do they light a lamp and then put it under a bushel basket; it is set on a lampstand, where it gives light to all in the house.


16 Just so, your light must shine before others, that they may see your good deeds and glorify your heavenly Father.


17 13 Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets. I have come not to abolish but to fulfill.


18 Amen, I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or the smallest part of a letter will pass from the law, until all things have taken place.


19 Therefore, whoever breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven. But whoever obeys and teaches these commandments will be called greatest in the kingdom of heaven


20 I tell you, unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter into the kingdom of heaven.


21 15 16 You have heard that it was said to your ancestors, 'You shall not kill; and whoever kills will be liable to judgment.'


22 17 But I say to you, whoever is angry 18 with his brother will be liable to judgment, and whoever says to his brother, 'Raqa,' will be answerable to the Sanhedrin, and whoever says, 'You fool,' will be liable to fiery Gehenna.


23 Therefore, if you bring your gift to the altar, and there recall that your brother has anything against you,


24 leave your gift there at the altar, go first and be reconciled with your brother, and then come and offer your gift.


25 Settle with your opponent quickly while on the way to court with him. Otherwise your opponent will hand you over to the judge, and the judge will hand you over to the guard, and you will be thrown into prison.


26 Amen, I say to you, you will not be released until you have paid the last penny.


27 19 You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.'


28 But I say to you, everyone who looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart.


29 20 If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one of your members than to have your whole body thrown into Gehenna.

若是你的右眼使你跌倒,剜出它来,从你身上扔掉,因为丧失你一个肢体,比你全身投入地狱里,为你更好; <, /SPAN>

30 And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one of your members than to have your whole body go into Gehenna.


31 21 It was also said, 'Whoever divorces his wife must give her a bill of divorce.'


32 But I say to you, whoever divorces his wife (unless the marriage is unlawful) causes her to commit adultery, and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.


33 22 Again you have heard that it was said to your ancestors, 'Do not take a false oath, but make good to the Lord all that you vow.'


34 But I say to you, do not swear at all; 23 not by heaven, for it is God's throne;


35 nor by the earth, for it is his footstool; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King.


36 Do not swear by your head, for you cannot make a single hair white or black.


37 24 Let yourYes mean Yes, and your No' mean No. Anything more is from the evil one.


38 25 You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.'


39 But I say to you, offer no resistance to one who is evil. When someone strikes you on (your) right cheek, turn the other one to him as well.


40 If anyone wants to go to law with you over your tunic, hand him your cloak as well.


41 Should anyone press you into service for one mile, 26 go with him for two miles.


42 Give to the one who asks of you, and do not turn your back on one who wants to borrow.


43 27 You have heard that it was said, You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.'


44 But I say to you, love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you,


45 that you may be children of your heavenly Father, for he makes his sun rise on the bad and the good, and causes rain to fall on the just and the unjust.


46 For if you love those who love you, what recompense will you have? Do not the tax collectors 28 do the same?


47 And if you greet your brothers only, what is unusual about that? Do not the pagans do the same? 29


48 So be perfect, 30 just as your heavenly Father is perfect.


Next Chapter


1 [5:1-7:29] The first of the five discourses that are a central part of the structure of this gospel. It is the discourse section of the first book and contains sayings of Jesus derived from Q and from M. The Lucan parallel is in that gospel's Sermon on the Plain (Luke 6:20-49), although some of the sayings in Matthew's Sermon on the Mount have their parallels in other parts of Luke. The careful topical arrangement of the sermon is probably not due only to Matthew's editing; he seems to have had a structured discourse of Jesus as one of his sources. The form of that source may have been as follows: four beatitudes (Matthew 5:3-4, 6, 11-12), a section on the new righteousness with illustrations (Matthew 5:17, 20-24, 27-28, 33-48), a section on good works (Matthew 6:1-6, 16-18), and three warnings (Matthew 7:1-2, 15-21, 24-27).

2 [1-2] Unlike Luke's sermon, this is addressed not only to the disciples but to the crowds (see Matthew 7:28).

3 [3-12] The form Blessed are (is) occurs frequently in the Old Testament in the Wisdom literature and in the psalms. Although modified by Matthew, the first, second, fourth, and ninth beatitudes have Lucan parallels (Matthew 5:3; Luke 6:20; Matthew 5:4; Luke 6:21, 22; Matthew 5:6; Luke 6:21a; Matthew 5:11-12; Luke 5:22-23). The others were added by the evangelist and are probably his own composition. A few manuscripts, Western and Alexandrian, and many versions and patristic quotations give the second and third beatitudes in inverted order.

4 [3] The poor in spirit: in the Old Testament, the poor (anawim) are those who are without material possessions and whose confidence is in God (see Isaiah 61:1; Zephaniah 2:3; in the NAB the word is translated lowly and humble, respectively, in those texts). Matthew added in spirit in order either to indicate that only the devout poor were meant or to extend the beatitude to all, of whatever social rank, who recognized their complete dependence on God. The same phrase poor in spirit is found in the Qumran literature (1QM 14:7).

5 [4] Cf Isaiah 61:2 (The Lord has sent me) . . . to comfort all who mourn. They will be comforted: here the passive is a theological passive equivalent to the active God will comfort them; so also in Matthew 5:6, 7.

6 [5] Cf Psalm 37:11,. . . the meek shall possess the land. In the psalm the land means the land of Palestine; here it means the kingdom.

7 [6] For righteousness: a Matthean addition. For the meaning of righteousness here, see the note on Matthew 3:14-15.

8 [8] Cf Psalm 24:4. Only one whose heart is clean can take part in the temple worship. To be with God in the temple is described in Psalm 42:2 as beholding his face, but here the promise to the clean of heart is that they will see God not in the temple but in the coming kingdom.

9 [10] Righteousness here, as usually in Matthew, means conduct in conformity with God's will.

10 [12] The prophets who were before you: the disciples of Jesus stand in the line of the persecuted prophets of Israel. Some would see the expression as indicating also that Matthew considered all Christian disciples as prophets.

11 [13-16] By their deeds the disciples are to influence the world for good. They can no more escape notice than a city set on a mountain. If they fail in good works, they are as useless as flavorless salt or as a lamp whose light is concealed.

12 [13] The unusual supposition of salt losing its flavor has led some to suppose that the saying refers to the salt of the Dead Sea that, because chemically impure, could lose its taste.

13 [17-20] This statement of Jesus' position concerning the Mosaic law is composed of traditional material from Matthew's sermon documentation (see the note on Matthew 5:1-7:29), other Q material (cf Matthew 18; Luke 16:17), and the evangelist's own editorial touches. To fulfill the law appears at first to mean a literal enforcement of the law in the least detail: until heaven and earth pass away nothing of the law will pass (Matthew 5:18). Yet the passing away of heaven and earth is not necessarily the end of the world understood, as in much apocalyptic literature, as the dissolution of the existing universe. The turning of the ages comes with the apocalyptic event of Jesus' death and resurrection, and those to whom this gospel is addressed are living in the new and final age, prophesied by Isaiah as the time of new heavens and a new earth (Isaiah 65:17; 66:22). Meanwhile, during Jesus' ministry when the kingdom is already breaking in, his mission remains within the framework of the law, though with significant anticipation of the age to come, as the following antitheses (Matthew 5:21-48) show.

14 [19] Probably these commandments means those of the Mosaic law. But this is an interim ethic until heaven and earth pas, s away.

15 [21-48] Six examples of the conduct demanded of the Christian disciple. Each deals with a commandment of the law, introduced by You have heard that it was said to your ancestors or an equivalent formula, followed by Jesus' teaching in respect to that commandment, But I say to you; thus their designation as antitheses. Three of them accept the Mosaic law but extend or deepen it (Matthew 5:21-22; 27-28; 43-44); three reject it as a standard of conduct for the disciples (Matthew 31-32; 33-37; 38-39).

16 [21] Cf Exodus 20:13; Deut 5:17. The second part of the verse is not an exact quotation from the Old Testament, but cf Exodus 21:12.

17 [22-26] Reconciliation with an offended brother is urged in the admonition of Matthew 5:23-24 and the parable of Matthew 5:25-26 (Luke 12:58-59). The severity of the judge in the parable is a warning of the fate of unrepentant sinners in the coming judgment by God.

18 [22] Anger is the motive behind murder, as the insulting epithets are steps that may lead to it. They, as well as the deed, are all forbidden. Raqa: an Aramaic word reqa' or reqa probably meaning imbecile,""blockhead, a term of abuse. The ascending order of punishment, judgment (by a local council?), trial before the Sanhedrin, condemnation to Gehenna, points to a higher degree of seriousness in each of the offenses. Sanhedrin: the highest judicial body of Judaism. Gehenna: in Hebrew ge-hinnom, Valley of Hinnom, or ge ben-hinnom, Valley of the son of Hinnom, southwest of Jerusalem, the center of an idolatrous cult during the monarchy in which children were offered in sacrifice (see 2 Kings 23:10; Jeremiah 7:31). In Joshua 18:16 (Septuagint, Codex Vaticanus) the Hebrew is transliterated into Greek as gaienna, which appears in the New Testament as geenna. The concept of punishment of sinners by fire either after death or after the final judgment is found in Jewish apocalyptic literature (e.g., Enoch 90:26) but the name geenna is first given to the place of punishment in the New Testament.

19 [27] See Exodus 20:14; Deut 5:18.

20 [29-30] No sacrifice is too great to avoid total destruction in Gehenna.

21 [31-32] See Deut 24:1-5. The Old Testament commandment that a bill of divorce be given to the woman assumes the legitimacy of divorce itself. It is this that Jesus denies. (Unless the marriage is unlawful): this exceptive clause, as it is often called, occurs also in Matthew 19:9, where the Greek is slightly different. There are other sayings of Jesus about divorce that prohibit it absolutely (see Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18; cf 1 Cor 7:10, 11b), and most scholars agree that they represent the stand of Jesus. Matthew's exceptive clauses are understood by some as a modification of the absolute prohibition. It seems, however, that the unlawfulness that Matthew gives as a reason why a marriage must be broken refers to a situation peculiar to his community: the violation of Mosaic law forbidding marriage between persons of certain blood and/or legal relationship (Lev 18:6-18). Marriages of that sort were regarded as incest (porneia), but some rabbis allowed Gentile converts to Judaism who had contracted such marriages to remain in them. Matthew's exceptive clause is against such permissiveness for Gentile converts to Christianity; cf the similar prohibition of porneia in Acts 15:20, 29. In this interpretation, the clause constitutes no exception to the absolute prohibition of divorce when the marriage is lawful.

22 [33] This is not an exact quotation of any Old Testament text, but see Exodus 20:7; Deut 5:11; Lev 19:12. The purpose of an oath was to guarantee truthfulness by one's calling on God as witness.

23 [34-36] The use of these oath formularies that avoid the divine name is in fact equivalent to swearing by it, for all the things sworn by are related to God.

24 [37] Let your `Yes' mean `Yes,' and your `No' mean `No': literally, let your speech be 'Yes, yes,' 'No, no.' Some have understood this as a milder form of oath, permitted by Jesus. In view of Matthew 5:34, Do not swear at all, that is unlikely. From the evil one: i.e., from the devil. Oath-taking presupposes a sinful weakness of the human race, namely, the tendency to lie. Jesus demands of his disciples a truthfulness that makes oaths unnecessary.

25 [38-42] See Lev 24:20. The Old Testament commandment was meant to moderate vengeance; the punishment should not exceed the injury done. Jesus forbids even this proportionate retaliation. Of the five examples that follow, only the first deals directly with retaliation for evil; the others speak of liberality.

26 [41] Roman garrisons in Palestine had the right to requisition the property and services of the native population.

27 [43-48] See Lev 19:18. There is no Old Testament commandment demanding hatred of one's enemy, but the neighbor of the love commandment was understood as one's fellow countryman. Both in the Old Testament (Psalm 139:19-22) and at Qumran (1QS 9:21) hatred of evil persons is assumed to be right. Jesus extends the love commandment to the enemy and the persecutor. His disciples, as children of God, must imitate the example of their Father, who grants his gifts of sun and rain to both the good and the bad.

28 [46] Tax collectors: Jews who were engaged in the collection of indirect taxes such as tolls and customs. See the note on Mark 2:14.

29 [47] Jesus' disciples must not be content with merely usual standards of conduct; see Matthew 5:20 where the verb surpass (Greek perisseuo) is cognate with the unusual (perisson) of this verse.

30 [48] Perfect: in the gospels this word occurs only in Matthew, here and in Matthew 19:21. The Lucan parallel (Luke 6:36) demands that the disciples be merciful.


Matthew Chapter 6

Chapter 6

1 1 (But) take care not to perform righteous deeds in order that people may see them; otherwise, you will have no recompense from your heavenly Father.


2 When you give alms, do not blow a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites 2 do in the synagogues and in the streets to win the praise of others. Amen, I say to you, they have received their reward.


3 But when you give alms, do not let your left hand know what your right is doing,


4 so that your almsgiving may be secret. And your Father who sees in secret will repay you.


5 When you pray, do not be like the hypocrites, who love to stand and pray in the synagogues and on street corners so that others may see them. Amen, I say to you, they have received their reward.


6 But when you pray, go to your inner room, close the door, and pray to your Father in secret. And your Father who sees in secret will repay you.


7 3 4 In praying, do not babble like the pagans, who think that they will be heard because of their many words.


8 Do not be like them. Your Father knows what you need before you ask him.


9 5 6 This is how you are to pray: Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name,


10 your kingdom come, 7 your will be done, on earth as in heaven.


11 8 Give us today our daily bread;


12 and forgive us our debts, 9 as we forgive our debtors;


13 and do not subject us to the final test, 10 but deliver us from the evil one.


14 11 If you forgive others their transgressions, your heavenly Father will forgive you.


15 But if you do not forgive others, neither will your Father forgive your transgressions.


16 When you fast, 12 do not look gloomy like the hypocrites. They neglect their appearance, so that they may appear to others to be fasting. Amen, I say to you, they have received their reward.


17 But when you fast, anoint your head and wash your face,


18 so that you may not appear to be fasting, except to your Father who is hidden. And your Father who sees what is hidden will repay you.


19 13 Do not store up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and decay destroy, and thieves break in and steal.


20 But store up treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor decay destroys, nor thieves break in and steal.


21 For where your treasure is, there also will your heart be.


22 14 The lamp of the body is the eye. If your eye is sound, your whole body will be filled with light;


23 but if your eye is bad, your whole body will be in darkness. And if the light in you is darkness, how great will the darkness be.


24 15 No one can serve two masters. He will either hate one and love the other, or be devoted to one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon.


25 16 Therefore I tell you, do not worry about your life, what you will eat (or drink), or about your body, what you will wear. Is not life more than food and the body more than clothing?


26 Look at the birds in the sky; they do not sow or reap, they gather nothing into barns, yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are not you more important than they?


27 Can any of you by worrying add a single moment to your life-span? 17


28 Why are you anxious about clothes? Learn from the way the wild flowers grow. They do not work or spin.


29 But I tell you that not even Solomon in all his splendor was clothed like one of them.


30 18 If God so clothes the grass of the field, which grows today and is thrown into the oven tomorrow, will he not much more provide for you, O you of little faith?


31 So do not worry and say, What are we to eat?' or What are we to drink? or 'What are we to wear?'


32 All these things the pagans seek. Your heavenly Father knows that you need them all.


33 But seek first the kingdom (of God) and his righteousness, 19 and all these things will be given you besides.


34 Do not worry about tomorrow; tomorrow will take care of itself. Sufficient for a day is its own evil.


Next Chapter


1 [1-18] The sermon continues with a warning against doing good in order to be seen and gives three examples, almsgiving (Matthew 6:2-4), prayer (Matthew 6:5-15), and fasting (Matthew 6:16-18). In each, the conduct of the hypocrites (Matthew 6:2) is contrasted with that demanded of the disciples. The sayings about reward found here and elsewhere (Matthew 5:12, 46; 10:41-42) show that this is a genuine element of Christian moral exhortation. Possibly to underline the difference between the Christian idea of reward and that of the hypocrites, the evangelist uses two different Greek verbs to express the rewarding of the disciples and that of the hypocrites; in the latter case it is the verb apecho, a commercial term for giving a receipt for what has been paid in full (Matthew 6:2, 5, 16).

2 [2] The hypocrites: the scribes and Pharisees, see Matthew 23:13, 15, 23, 25, 27, 29. The designation reflects an attitude resulting not only from the controversies at the time of Jesus' ministry but from the opposition between Pharisaic Judaism and the church of Matthew. They have received their reward: they desire praise and have received what they were looking for.

3 [7-15] Matthew inserts into his basic traditional material an expansion of the material on prayer that includes the model prayer, the Our Father. That prayer is found in Luke 11:2-4 in a different context and in a different form.

4 [7] The example of what Christian prayer should be like contrasts it now not with the prayer of the hypocrites but with that of the pagans. Their babbling probably means their reciting a long list of divine names, hoping that one of them will force a response from the deity.

5 [9-13] Matthew's form of the Our Father follows the liturgical tradition of his church. Luke's less developed form also represents the liturgical tradition known to him, but it is probably closer than Matthew's to the original words of Jesus.

6 [9] Our Father in heaven: this invocation is found in many rabbinic prayers of the post-New Testament period. Hallowed be your name: though the hallowing of the divine name could be understood as reverence done to God by human praise and by obedience to his will, this is more probably a petition that God hallow his own name, i.e., that he manifest his glory by an act of power (cf Ezekiel 36:23), in this case, by the establishment of his kingdom in its fullness.

7 [10] Your kingdom come: this petition sets the tone of the prayer, and inclines the balance toward divine rather than human action in the petitions that immediately precede and follow it. Your will be done, on earth as in heaven: a petition that the divine purpose to establish the kingdom, a purpose present now in heaven, be executed on earth.

8 [11] Give us today our daily bread: the rare Greek word epiousios, here daily, occurs in the New Testament only here and in Luke 11:3. A single occurrence of the word outside of these texts and of literature dependent on them has been claimed, but the claim is highly doubtful. The word may mean daily or future (other meanings have also been proposed). The latter would conform better to the eschatological tone of the whole prayer. So understood, the petition would be for a speedy coming of the kingdom (today), which is often portrayed in both the Old Testament and the New under the image of a feast (Isaiah 25:6; Matthew 8:11; 22:1-10; Luke 13:29; 14:15-24).

9 [12] Forgive us our debts: the word debts is used metaphorically of sins, debts owed to God (see Luke 11:4). The request is probably for forgiveness at the final judgment.

10 [13] Jewish apocalyptic writings speak of a period of severe trial before the end of the age, sometimes called the messianic woes. This petition asks that the disciples be spared that final test.

11 [14-15] These verses reflect a set pattern called Principles of Holy Law. Human action now will be met by a corresponding action of God at the final judgment.

12 [16] The only fast prescribed in the Mosaic law was that of the Day of Atonement (Lev 16:31), but the practice of regular fasting was common in later Judaism; cf Didache Matthew 9:1.

13 [19-34] The remaining material of this chapter is taken almost entirely from Q. It deals principally with worldly possessions, and the controlling thought is summed up in Matthew 6:24, the disciple can serve only one master and must choose between God and wealth (mammon). See further the note on Luke 16:9.

14 [22-23] In this context the parable probably points to the need for the disciple to be enlightened by Jesus' teaching on the transitory nature of earthly riches.

15 [24] Mammon: an Aramaic word meaning wealth or property.

16 [25-34] Jesus does not deny the reality of human needs (Matthew 6:32), but forbids making them the object of anxious care and, in effect, becoming their slave.

17 [27] Life-span: the Greek word can also mean stature. If it is taken in that sense, the word here translated moment (literally, cubit) must be translated literally as a unit not of time but of spatial measure. The cubit is about eighteen inches.

18 [30] Of little faith: except for the parallel in Luke 12:28, the word translated of little faith is found in the New Testament only in Matthew. It is used by him of those who are disciples of Jesus but whose faith in him is not as deep as it should be (see Matthew 8:26; 14:31; 16:8 and the cognate noun in Matthew 17:20).

19 [33] Righteousness: see the note on Matthew 3:14-15.


Matthew Chapter 7

Chapter 7

1 1 2 Stop judging, that you may not be judged.


2  For as you judge, so will you be judged, and the measure with which you measure will be measured out to you.


3 Why do you notice the splinter in your brothers eye, but do not perceive the wooden beam in your own eye?


4 How can you say to your brother, Let me remove that splinter from your eye,' while the wooden beam is in your eye?


5 You hypocrite, 3 remove the wooden beam from your eye first; then you will see clearly to remove the splinter from your brother's eye.


6 Do not give what is holy to dogs, 4 or throw your pearls before swine, lest they trample them underfoot, and turn and tear you to pieces.


7 Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door will be opened to you.


8 For everyone who asks, receives; and the one who seeks, finds; and to the one who knocks, the door will be opened.


9 Which one of you would hand his son a stone when he asks for a loaf of bread, 5


10 or a snake when he asks for a fish?


11 If you then, who are wicked, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give good things to those who ask him.


12 6 Do to others whatever you would have them do to you. This is the law and the prophets.


13 7 8 Enter through the narrow gate; for the gate is wide and the road broad that leads to destruction, and those who enter through it are many.


14 How narrow the gate and constricted the road that leads to life. And those who find it are few.


15 9 Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheeps clothing, but underneath are ravenous wolves.


16 By their fruits you will know them. Do people pick grapes from thornbushes, or figs from thistles?


17 Just so, every good tree bears good fruit, and a rotten tree bears bad fruit.


18 A good tree cannot bear bad fruit, nor can a rotten tree bear good fruit.


19 Every tree that does not bear good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire.


20 So by their fruits you will know them.


21 Not everyone who says to me,Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, 10 but only the one who does the will of my Father in heaven.


22 Many will say to me on that day,Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name? Did we not drive out demons in your name? Did we not do mighty deeds in your name?'


23 Then I will declare to them solemnly, I never knew you. 11 Depart from me, you evildoers.'


24 12 Everyone who listens to these words of mine and acts on them will be like a wise man who built his house on rock.


25 The rain fell, the floods came, and the winds blew and buffeted the house. But it did not collapse; it had been set solidly on rock.


26 And everyone who listens to these words of mine but does not act on them will be like a fool who built his house on sand.


27 The rain fell, the floods came, and the winds blew and buffeted the house. And it collapsed and was completely ruined.


28 13 When Jesus finished these words, the crowds were astonished at his teaching, 14 for he taught them as one having authority, and not as their scribes.


Table of Contents Previous Chapter Next Chapter



1 [1-12] In Matthew 7:1 Matthew returns to the basic traditional material of the sermon (Luke 6:37-38, 41-42). The governing thought is the correspondence between conduct toward one's fellows and God's conduct toward the one so acting.

2 [1] This is not a prohibition against recognizing the faults of others, which would be hardly compatible with Matthew 7:5, 6 but against passing judgment in a spirit of arrogance, forgetful of one's own faults.

3 [5] Hypocrite: the designation previously given to the scribes and Pharisees is here given to the Christian disciple who is concerned with the faults of another and ignores his own more serious offenses.

4 [6] Dogs and swine were Jewish terms of contempt for Gentiles. This saying may originally have derived from a Jewish Christian community opposed to preaching the gospel (what is holy, pearls) to Gentiles. In the light of Matthew 28:19 that can hardly be Matthew's meaning. He may have taken the saying as applying to a Christian dealing with an obstinately impenitent fellow Christian (Matthew 18:17).

5 [9-10] There is a resemblance between a stone and a round loaf of bread and between a serpent and the scaleless fish called barbut.

6 [12] See Luke 6:31. This saying, known since the eighteenth century as the Golden Rule, is found in both positive and negative form in pagan and Jewish sources, both earlier and later than the gospel. This is the law and the prophets is an addition probably due to the evangelist.

7 [13-28] The final section of the discourse is composed of a series of antitheses, contrasting two kinds of life within the Christian community, that of those who obey the words of Jesus and that of those who do not. Most of the sayings are from Q and are found also in Luke.

8 [13-14] The metaphor of the two ways was common in pagan philosophy and in the Old Testament. In Christian literature it is found also in the Didache (1-6) and the Epistle of Barnabas (18-20).

9 [15-20] Christian disciples who claimed to speak in the name of God are called prophets (Matthew 7:15) in Matthew 10:41; Matthew 23:34. They were presumably an important group within the church of Matthew. As in the case of the Old Testament prophets, there were both true and false ones, and for Matthew the difference could be recognized by the quality of their deeds, the fruits (Matthew 7:16). The mention of fruits leads to the comparison with trees, some producing good fruit, others bad.

10 [21-23] The attack on the false prophets is continued, but is broadened to include those disciples who perform works of healing and exorcism in the name of Jesus (Lord) but live evil lives. Entrance into the kingdom is only for those who do the will of the Father. On the day of judgment (on that day) the morally corrupt prophets and miracle workers will be rejected by Jesus.

11 [23] I never knew you: cf Matthew 10:33. Depart from me, you evildoers: cf Psalm 6:8.

12 [24-27] The conclusion of the discourse (cf Luke 6:47-49). Here the relation is not between saying and doing as in Matthew 7:15-23 but between hearing and doing, and the words of Jesus are applied to every Christian (everyone who listens).

13 [28-29] When Jesus finished these words: this or a similar formula is used by Matthew to conclude each of the five great discourses of Jesus (cf Matthew 11:1; 13:53; 19:1; 26:1).

14 [29] Not as their scribes: scribal instruction was a faithful handing down of the traditions of earlier teachers; Jesus' teaching is based on his own authority. Their scribes: for the implications of their, see the note on Matthew 4:23.


Matthew Chapter 8

Chapter 8

1 1 When Jesus came down from the mountain, great crowds followed him.


2  And then a leper 2 approached, did him homage, and said, Lord, if you wish, you can make me clean.


3 He stretched out his hand, touched him, and said, I will do it. Be made clean. His leprosy was cleansed immediately.


4 3 Then Jesus said to him, See that you tell no one, but go show yourself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses prescribed; that will be proof for them.


5 4 When he entered Capernaum, 5 a centurion approached him and appealed to him,


6 saying, Lord, my servant is lying at home paralyzed, suffering dreadfully.


7 He said to him, I will come and cure him.


8 The centurion said in reply, 6 Lord, I am not worthy to have you enter under my roof; only say the word and my servant will be healed.


9 For I too am a person subject to authority, with soldiers subject to me. And I say to one, Go,' and he goes; and to another, Come here,' and he comes; and to my slave, Do this,' and he does it.


10 When Jesus heard this, he was amazed and said to those following him, Amen, I say to you, in no one in Israel 7 have I found such faith.


11 I say to you, 8 many will come from the east and the west, and will recline with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob at the banquet in the kingdom of heaven,


12 but the children of the kingdom will be driven out into the outer darkness, where there will be wailing and grinding of teeth.


13 And Jesus said to the centurion, You may go; as you have believed, let it be done for you. And at that very hour (his) servant was healed.


14 9 Jesus entered the house of Peter, and saw his mother-in-law lying in bed with a fever.




15 He touched her hand, the fever left her, and she rose and waited on him.




16 When it was evening, they brought him many who were possessed by demons, and he drove out the spirits by a word 10 and cured all the sick,




17 to fulfill what had been said by Isaiah the prophet: 11 He took away our infirmities and bore our diseases.



18 12 13 When Jesus saw a crowd around him, he gave orders to cross to the other side.



19 A scribe approached and said to him, Teacher, 14 I will follow you wherever you go.



20 Jesus answered him, Foxes have dens and birds of the sky have nests, but the Son of Man 15 has nowhere to rest his head.


21 Another of (his) disciples said to him, Lord, let me go first and bury my father.


22 16 But Jesus answered him, Follow me, and let the dead bury their dead.


23 17 He got into a boat and his disciples followed him.


24 Suddenly a violent storm 18 came up on the sea, so that the boat was being swamped by waves; but he was asleep.


25 They came and woke him, saying, Lord, save us! 19 We are perishing!


26 He said to them, Why are you terrified, O you of little faith?20 Then he got up, rebuked the winds and the sea, and there was great calm.


27 The men were amazed and said, What sort of man is this, whom even the winds and the sea obey?


28 When he came to the other side, to the territory of the Gadarenes, 21 two demoniacs who were coming from the tombs met him. They were so savage that no one could travel by that road.


29 They cried out, What have you to do with us, 22 Son of God? Have you come here to torment us before the appointed time?


30 Some distance away a herd of many swine was feeding. 23


31 The demons pleaded with him, If you drive us out, send us into the herd of swine.


32 And he said to them, Go then! They came out and entered the swine, and the whole herd rushed down the steep bank into the sea where they drowned.


33 The swineherds ran away, and when they came to the town they reported everything, including what had happened to the demoniacs.


34 Thereupon the whole town came out to meet Jesus, and when they saw him they begged him to leave their district.


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1 [8:1-9:38] This narrative section of the second book of the gospel is composed of nine miracle stories, most of which are found in Mark, although Matthew does not follow the Marcan order and abbreviates the stories radically. The stories are arranged in three groups of three, each group followed by a section composed principally of sayings of Jesus about discipleship. Matthew 9:35 is an almost verbatim repetition of Matthew 4:23. Each speaks of Jesus' teaching, preaching, and healing. The teaching and preaching form the content of Matthew 5-7; the healing, that of Matthew 8-9. Some scholars speak of a portrayal of Jesus as Messiah of the Word in Matthew 5-7 and Messiah of the Deed in Matthew 8-9. That is accurate so far as it goes, but there is also a strong emphasis on discipleship in Matthew 8-9; these chapters have not only christological but ecclesiological import.

2 [2] A leper: see the note on Mark 1:40.

3 [4] Cf Lev 14:2-9. That will be proof for them: the Greek can also mean that will be proof against them. It is not clear whether them refers to the priests or the people.

4 [5-13] This story comes from Q (see Luke 7:1-10) and is also reflected in John 4:46-54. The similarity between the Q story and the Johannine is due to a common oral tradition, not to a common literary source. As in the later story of the daughter of the Canaanite woman (Matthew 15:21-28) Jesus here breaks with his usual procedure of ministering only to Israelites and anticipates the mission to the Gentiles.

5 [5] A centurion: a military officer commanding a hundred men. He was probably in the service of Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee; see the note on Matthew 14:1.

6 [8-9] Acquainted by his position with the force of a command, the centurion expresses faith in the power of Jesus' mere word.

7 [10] In no one in Israel: there is good textual attestation (e.g., Codex Sinaiticus) for a reading identical with that of Luke 7:9, not even in Israel. But that seems to be due to a harmonization of Matthew with Luke.

8 [11-12] Matthew inserts into the story a Q saying (see Luke 13:28-29) about the entrance of Gentiles into the kingdom and the exclusion of those Israelites who, though descended from the patriarchs and members of the chosen nation (the children of the kingdom), refused to believe in Jesus. There will be wailing and grinding of teeth: the first occurrence of a phrase used frequently in this gospel to describe final condemnation (Matthew 13:42, 50; 22:13; 24:51; 25:30). It is found elsewhere in the New Testament only in Luke 13:28.

9 [14-15] Cf Mark 1:29-31. Unlike Mark, Matthew has no implied request by others for the woman's cure. Jesus acts on his own initiative, and the cured woman rises and waits not on them (Mark 1:31) but on him.

10 [16] By a word: a Matthean addition to Mark 1:34; cf 8:8.

11 [17] This fulfillment citation from Isaiah 53:4 follows the MT, not the LXX. The prophet speaks of the Servant of the Lord who suffers vicariously for the sins (infirmities) of others; Matthew takes the infirmities as physical afflictions.

12 [18-22] This passage between the first and second series of miracles about following Jesus is taken from Q (see Luke 9:57-62). The third of the three sayings found in the source is absent from Matthew.

13 [18] The other side: i.e., of the Sea of Galilee.

14 [19] Teacher: for Matthew, this designation of Jesus is true, for he has Jesus using it of himself (Matthew 10:24, 25; 23:8; 26:18), yet when it is used of him by others they are either his opponents (Matthew 9:11; 12:38; 17:24; 22:16, 24, 36) or, as here and in Matthew 19:16, well-disposed persons who cannot see more deeply. Thus it reveals an inadequate recognition of who Jesus is.

15 [20] Son of Man: see the note on Mark 8:31. This is the first occurrence in Matthew of a term that appears in the New Testament only in sayings of Jesus, except for Acts 7:56 and possibly Matthew 9:6 (Mark 2:10; Luke 5:24). In Matthew it refers to Jesus in his ministry (seven times, as here), in his passion and resurrection (nine times, e.g., Matthew 17:22), and in his glorious coming at the end of the age (thirteen times, e.g., Matthew 24:30).

16 [22] Let the dead bury their dead: the demand of Jesus overrides what both the Jewish and the Hellenistic world regarded as a filial obligation of the highest importance. See the note on Luke 9:60.

17 [23] His disciples followed him: the first miracle in the second group (Matthew 8:23-9:8) is introduced by a verse that links it with the preceding sayings by the catchword follow. In Mark the initiative in entering the boat is taken by the disciples (Mark 4:35-41); here, Jesus enters first and the disciples follow.

18 [24] Storm: literally, earthquake, a word commonly used in apocalyptic literature for the shaking of the old world when God brings in his kingdom. All the synoptics use it in depicting the events preceding the parousia of the Son of Man (Matthew 24:7; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:11). Matthew has introduced it here and in his account of the death and resurrection of Jesus (Matthew 27:51-54; 28:2).

19 [25] The reverent plea of the disciples contrasts sharply with their reproach of Jesus in Mark 4:38.

20 [26] You of little faith: see the note on Matthew 6:30. Great calm: Jesus' calming the sea may be meant to recall the Old Testament theme of God's control over the chaotic waters (Psalm 65:8; 89:10; 93:3-4; 107:29).

21 [28] Gadarenes: this is the reading of Codex Vaticanus, supported by other important textual witnesses. The original reading of Codex Sinaiticus was Gazarenes, later changed to Gergesenes, and a few versions have Gerasenes. Each of these readings points to a different territory connected, respectively, with the cities Gadara, Gergesa, and Gerasa (modern Jerash). There is the same confusion of readings in the parallel texts, Mark 5:1 and Luke 8:26; there the best reading seems to be Gerasenes, whereas Gadarenes is probably the original reading in Matthew. The town of Gadara was about five miles southeast of the Sea of Galilee, and Josephus (Life 9:42) refers to it as possessing territory that lay on that sea. Two demoniacs: Mark (5:1-20) has one.

22 [29] What have you to do with us?: see the note on John 2:4. Before the appointed time: the notion that evil spirits were allowed by God to afflict human beings until the time of the final judgment is found in Enoch 16:1 and Jubilees 10:7-10.

23 [30] The tending of pigs, animals considered unclean by Mosaic law (Lev 11:6-7), indicates that the population was Gentile.


Matthew Chapter 9

Chapter 9

1 1 He entered a boat, made the crossing, and came into his own town.


2 And there people brought to him a paralytic lying on a stretcher. When Jesus saw their faith, he said to the paralytic, Courage, child, your sins are forgiven.


3 At that, some of the scribes 2 said to themselves, This man is blaspheming.


4 Jesus knew what they were thinking, and said, Why do you harbor evil thoughts?


5 Which is easier, to say, Your sins are forgiven,' or to say, Rise and walk'?


6 3 But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins --he then said to the paralytic, Rise, pick up your stretcher, and go home.


7 He rose and went home.


8 4 When the crowds saw this they were struck with awe and glorified God who had given such authority to human beings.


9 5 6 As Jesus passed on from there, he saw a man named Matthew sitting at the customs post. He said to him, Follow me. And he got up and followed him.


10 While he was at table in his house, 7 many tax collectors and sinners came and sat with Jesus and his disciples.


11 The Pharisees saw this and said to his disciples, Why does your teacher 8 eat with tax collectors and sinners?


12 He heard this and said, Those who are well do not need a physician, but the sick do. 9


13 Go and learn the meaning of the words, I desire mercy, not sacrifice.' 10 I did not come to call the righteous but sinners.


14 Then the disciples of John approached him and said, Why do we and the Pharisees fast (much), but your disciples do not fast?


15 Jesus answered them, Can the wedding guests mourn as long as the bridegroom is with them? The days will come when the bridegroom is taken away from them, and then they will fast. 11


16 No one patches an old cloak with a piece of unshrunken cloth, 12 for its fullness pulls away from the cloak and the tear gets worse.


17 People do not put new wine into old wineskins. Otherwise the skins burst, the wine spills out, and the skins are ruined. Rather, they pour new wine into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved.


18 13 While he was saying these things to them, an official 14 came forward, knelt down before him, and said, My daughter has just died. But come, lay your hand on her, and she will live.


19 Jesus rose and followed him, and so did his disciples.


20 A woman suffering hemorrhages for twelve years came up behind him and touched the tassel 15 on his cloak.


21 She said to herself, If only I can touch his cloak, I shall be cured.


22 Jesus turned around and saw her, and said, Courage, daughter! Your faith has saved you. And from that hour the woman was cured.


23 When Jesus arrived at the official's house and saw the flute players and the crowd who were making a commotion,


24 he said, Go away! The girl is not dead but sleeping.16 And they ridiculed him.


25 When the crowd was put out, he came and took her by the hand, and the little girl arose.

把群, 众赶出去以后,耶稣就进去,拿起女孩子的手,小女孩就起来了。

26 And news of this spread throughout all that land.


27 17 And as Jesus passed on from there, two blind men followed (him), crying out, Son of David, 18 have pity on us!


28 When he entered the house, the blind men approached him and Jesus said to them, Do you believe that I can do this?" "Yes, Lord, they said to him.


29 Then he touched their eyes and said, Let it be done for you according to your faith.


30 And their eyes were opened. Jesus warned them sternly, See that no one knows about this.


31 But they went out and spread word of him through all that land.


32 As they were going out, 19 a demoniac who could not speak was brought to him,


33 and when the demon was driven out the mute person spoke. The crowds were amazed and said, Nothing like this has ever been seen in Israel.


34 20 But the Pharisees said, He drives out demons by the prince of demons.


35 21 Jesus went around to all the towns and villages, teaching in their synagogues, proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom, and curing every disease and illness.


36 At the sight of the crowds, his heart was moved with pity for them because they were troubled and abandoned, 22 like sheep without a shepherd.


37 23 Then he said to his disciples, The harvest is abundant but the laborers are few;


38 so ask the master of the harvest to send out laborers for his harvest.


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1 [1] His own town: Capernaum; see Matthew 4:13.

2 [3] Scribes: see the note on Mark 2:6. Matthew omits the reason given in the Marcan story for the charge of blasphemy: Who but God alone can forgive sins? (Mark 2:7).

3 [6] It is not clear whether But that you may know . . . to forgive sins is intended to be a continuation of the words of Jesus or a parenthetical comment of the evangelist to those who would hear or read this gospel. In any case, Matthew here follows the Marcan text.

4 [8] Who had given such authority to human beings: a significant difference from Mark 2:12 (They . . . glorified God, saying, We have never seen anything like this' ). Matthew's extension to human beings of the authority to forgive sins points to the belief that such authority was being claimed by Matthew's church.

5 [9-17] In this section the order is the same as that of Mark 2:13-22.

6 [9] A man named Matthew: Mark names this tax collector Levi (Mark 2:14). No such name appears in the four lists of the twelve who were the closest companions of Jesus (Matthew 10:2-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:14-16; Acts 1:13 [eleven, because of the defection of Judas Iscariot]), whereas all four list a Matthew, designated in Matthew 10:3 as the tax collector. The evangelist may have changed the Levi of his source to Matthew so that this man, whose call is given special notice, like that of the first four disciples (Matthew 4:18-22), might be included among the twelve. Another reason for the change may be that the disciple Matthew was the source of traditions peculiar to the church for which the evangelist was writing.

7 [10] His house: it is not clear whether his refers to Jesus or Matthew. Tax collectors: see the note on Matthew 5:46. Table association with such persons would cause ritual impurity.

8 [11] Teacher: see the note on Matthew 8:19.

9 [12] See the note on Mark 2:17.

10 [13] Go and learn . . . not sacrifice: Matthew adds the prophetic statement of Hosea 6:6 to the Marcan account (see also Matthew 12:7). If mercy is superior to the temple sacrifices, how much more to the laws of ritual impurity.

11 [15] Fasting is a sign of mourning and would be as inappropriate at this time of joy, when Jesus is proclaiming the kingdom, as it would be at a marriage feast. Yet the saying looks forward to the time when Jesus will no longer be with the disciples visibly, the time of Matthew's church. Then they will fast: see Didache 8:1.

12 [16-17] Each of these parables speaks of the unsuitability of attempting to combine the old and the new. Jesus' teaching is not a patching up of Judaism, nor can the gospel be contained within the limits of Mosaic law.

13 [18-34] In this third group of miracles, the first (Matthew 9:18-26) is clearly dependent on Mark (Mark 5:21-43). Though it tells of two miracles, the cure of the woman had already been included within the story of the raising of the official's daughter, so that the two were probably regarded as a single unit. The other miracles seem to have been derived from Mark and Q respectively, though there Matthew's own editing is much more evident.

14 [18] Official: literally, ruler. Mark calls him one of the synagogue officials (Mark 5:22). My daughter has just died: Matthew heightens the Marcan my daughter is at the point of death (Mark 5:23).

15 [20] Tassel: possibly fringe. The Mosaic law prescribed that tassels be worn on the corners of one's garment as a reminder to keep the commandments (see Numbers 15:37-39; Deut 22:12).

16 [24] Sleeping: sleep is a biblical metaphor for death (see Psalm 87:6 LXX; Daniel 12:2; 1 Thes 5:10). Jesus' statement is not a denial of the child's real death, but an assurance that she will be roused from her sleep of death.

17 [27-31] This story was probably composed by Matthew out of Mark's story of the healing of a blind man named Bartimaeus (Mark 10:46-52). Mark places the event late in Jesus' ministry, just before his entrance into Jerusalem, and Matthew has followed his Marcan source at that point in his gospel also (see Matthew 20:29-34). In each of the Matthean stories the single blind man of Mark becomes two. The reason why Matthew would have given a double version of the Marcan story and placed the earlier one here may be that he wished to add a story of Jesus' curing the blind at this point in order to prepare for Jesus' answer to the emissaries of the Baptist (Matthew 11:4-6) in which Jesus, recounting his works, begins with his giving sight to the blind.

18 [27] Son of David: this messianic title is connected once with the healing power of Jesus in Mark (Mark 10:47-48) and Luke (Luke 18:38-39) but more frequently in Matthew (see also Matthew 12:23; 15:22; 20:30-31).

19 [32-34] The source of this story seems to be Q (see Luke 11:14-15). As in the preceding healing of the blind, Matthew has two versions of this healing, the later in Matthew 12:22-24 and the earlier here.

20 [34] This spiteful accusation foreshadows the growing opposition to Jesus in Matthew 11; 12.

21 [35] See the notes on Matthew 4:23-25; Matthew 8:1-9:38.

22 [36] See Mark 6:34; Numbers 27:17; 1 Kings 22:17.

23 [37-38] This Q saying (see Luke 10:2) is only imperfectly related to this context. It presupposes that only , , God (the master of the harvest) can take the initiative in sending out preachers of the gospel, whereas in Matthew's sett, ing it leads into Matthew 10 where Jesus does so.


Matthew Chapter 10

Chapter 10

1 1 Then he summoned his twelve disciples 2 and gave them authority over unclean spirits to drive them out and to cure every disease and every illness.


2 The names of the twelve apostles 3 are these: first, Simon called Peter, and his brother Andrew; James, the son of Zebedee, and his brother John;


3 Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James, the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddeus;


4 Simon the Cananean, and Judas Iscariot who betrayed him.


5 Jesus sent out these twelve 4 after instructing them thus, Do not go into pagan territory or enter a Samaritan town.


6 Go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.


7 As you go, make this proclamation: The kingdom of heaven is at hand.'


8 5 Cure the sick, raise the dead, cleanse lepers, drive out demons. Without cost you have received; without cost you are to give.


9 Do not take gold or silver or copper for your belts;


10 no sack for the journey, or a second tunic, or sandals, or walking stick. The laborer deserves his keep.


11 Whatever town or village you enter, look for a worthy person in it, and stay there until you leave.


12 As you enter a house, wish it peace.


13 If the house is worthy, let your peace come upon it; if not, let your peace return to you. 6


14 7 Whoever will not receive you or listen to your words--go outside that house or town and shake the dust from your feet.


15 Amen, I say to you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah on the day of judgment than for that town.


16 Behold, I am sending you like sheep in the midst of wolves; so be shrewd as serpents and simple as doves.


17 8 But beware of people, for they will hand you over to courts and scourge you in their synagogues,


18 and you will be led before governors and kings for my sake as a witness before them and the pagans.


19 When they hand you over, do not worry about how you are to speak or what you are to say. You will be given at that moment what you are to say.


20 For it will not be you who speak but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you.


21 9 Brother will hand over brother to death, and the father his child; children will rise up against parents and have them put to death.


22 You will be hated by all because of my name, but whoever endures to the end 10 will be saved.


23 When they persecute you in one town, flee to another. Amen, I say to you, you will not finish the towns of Israel before the Son of Man comes. 11


24 No disciple is above his teacher, no slave above his master.


25 It is enough for the disciple that he become like his teacher, for the slave that he become like his master. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul, 12 how much more those of his household!


26 Therefore do not be afraid of them. Nothing is concealed that will not be revealed, nor secret that will not be known. 13


27 What I say to you in the darkness, speak in the light; what you hear whispered, proclaim on the housetops.


28 And do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul; rather, be afraid of the one who can destroy both soul and body in Gehenna.



29 Are not two sparrows sold for a small coin? Yet not one of them falls to the ground without your Father's knowledge.



30 Even all the hairs of your head are counted.


31 So do not be afraid; you are worth more than many sparrows.


32 14 Everyone who acknowledges me before others I will acknowledge before my heavenly Father.


33 But whoever denies me before others, I will deny before my heavenly Father.


34 Do not think that I have come to bring peace upon the earth. I have come to bring not peace but the sword.


35 For I have come to set a managainst his father, a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law;


36 and one's enemies will be those of his household.'


37 Whoever loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me, and whoever loves son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me;


38 and whoever does not take up his cross 15 and follow after me is not worthy of me.


39 16 Whoever finds his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life for my sake will find it.


40 Whoever receives you receives me, 17 and whoever receives me receives the one who sent me.


41 18 Whoever receives a prophet because he is a prophet will receive a prophet's reward, and whoever receives a righteous man because he is righteous will receive a righteous man's reward.


42 And whoever gives only a cup of cold water to one of these little ones to drink because he is a disciple--amen, I say to you, he will surely not lose his reward.


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1 [10:1-11:1] After an introductory narrative (Matthew 10:1-4), the second of the discourses of the gospel. It deals with the mission now to be undertaken by the disciples (Matthew 10:5-15), but the perspective broadens and includes the missionary activity of the church between the time of the resurrection and the parousia. 2 His twelve disciples: although, unlike Mark (Mark 3:13-14) and Luke (Luke 6:12-16), Matthew has no story of Jesus' choosing the Twelve, he assumes that the group is known to the reader. The earliest New Testament text to speak of it is 1 Cor 15:5. The number probably is meant to recall the twelve tribes of Israel and implies Jesus' authority to call all Israel into the kingdom. While Luke (Luke 6:13) and probably Mark (Mark 4:10, 34) distinguish between the Twelve and a larger group also termed disciples, Matthew tends to identify the disciples and the Twelve. Authority . . . every illness: activities the same as those of Jesus; see Matthew 4:23; Matthew 9:35; 10:8. The Twelve also share in his proclamation of the kingdom (Matthew 10:7). But although he teaches (Matthew 4:23; 7:28; 9:35), they do not. Their commission to teach comes only after Jesus' resurrection, after they have been fully instructed by him (Matthew 28:20).

3 [2-4] Here, for the only time in Matthew, the Twelve are designated apostles. The word apostle means one who is sent, and therefore fits the situation here described. In the Pauline letters, the place where the term occurs most frequently in the New Testament, it means primarily one who has seen the risen Lord and has been commissioned to proclaim the resurrection. With slight variants in Luke and Acts, the names of those who belong to this group are the same in the four lists given in the New Testament (see the note on Matthew 9:9). Cananean: this represents an Aramaic word meaning zealot. The meaning of that designation is unclear (see the note on Luke 6:15).

4 [5-6] Like Jesus (Matthew 15:24), the Twelve are sent only to Israel. This saying may reflect an original Jewish Christian refusal of the mission to the Gentiles, but for Matthew it expresses rather the limitation that Jesus himself observed during his ministry.

5 [8-11] The Twelve have received their own call and mission through God's gift, and the benefits they confer are likewise to be given freely. They are not to take with them money, provisions, or unnecessary clothing; their lodging and food will be provided by those who receive them.

6 [13] The greeting of peace is conceived of not merely as a salutation but as an effective word. If it finds no worthy recipient, it will return to the speaker.

7 [14] Shake the dust from your feet: this gesture indicates a complete disassociation from such unbelievers.

8 [17] The persecutions attendant upon the post-resurrection mission now begin to be spoken of. Here Matthew brings into the discourse sayings found in Mark 13 which deals with events preceding the parousia.

9 [21] See Micah 7:6 which is cited in Matthew 10:35, 36.

10 [22] To the end: the original meaning was probably until the parousia. But it is not likely that Matthew expected no missionary disciples to suffer death before then, since he envisages the martyrdom of other Christians (Matthew 10:21). For him, the end is probably that of the individual's life (see Matthew 10:28).

11 [23] Before the Son of Man comes: since the coming of the Son of Man at the end of the age had not taken place when this gospel was written, much less during the mission of the Twelve during Jesus' ministry, Matthew cannot have meant the coming to refer to the parousia. It is difficult to know what he understood it to be: perhaps the proleptic parousia of Matthew 28:16-20, or the destruction of the temple in A.D. 70, viewed as a coming of Jesus in judgment on unbelieving Israel.

12 [25] Beelzebul: see Matthew 9:34 for the charge linking Jesus with the prince of demons, who is named Beelzebul in Matthew 12:24. The meaning of the name is uncertain; possibly, lord of the house.

13 [26] The concealed and secret coming of the kingdom is to be proclaimed by them, and no fear must be allowed to deter them from that proclamation.

14 [32-33] In the Q parallel (Luke 12:8-9), the Son of Man will acknowledge those who have acknowledged Jesus, and those who deny him will be denied (by the Son of Man) before the angels of God at the judgment. Here Jesus and the Son of Man are identified, and the acknowledgment or denial will be before his heavenly Father.

15 [38] The first mention of the cross in Matthew, explicitly that of the disciple, but implicitly that of Jesus (and follow after me). Crucifixion was a form of capital punishment used by the Romans for offenders who were not Roman citizens.

16 [39] One who denies Jesus in order to save one's earthly life will be condemned to everlasting destruction; loss of earthly life for Jesus' sake will be rewarded by everlasting life in the kingdom.

17 [40-42] All who receive the disciples of Jesus receive him, and God who sent him, and will be rewarded accordingly.

18 [41] A prophet: one who speaks in the name of God; here, the Christian prophets who proclaim the gospel. Righteous man: since righteousness is demanded of all the disciples, it is difficult to take the righteous man of this verse and one of these little ones (Matthew 10:42) as indicating different groups within the followers of Jesus. Probably all three designations are used here of Christian missionaries as such.


Matthew Chapter 11

Chapter 11

1 When Jesus finished giving these commands to his twelve disciples, 1 he went away from that place to teach and to preach in their towns.


2 2 When John heard in prison 3 of the works of the Messiah, he sent his disciples to him


3 4 with this question,Are you the one who is to come, or should we look for another?


4 Jesus said to them in reply,Go and tell John what you hear and see:


5 5 the blind regain their sight, the lame walk, lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the poor have the good news proclaimed to them.


6 And blessed is the one who takes no offense at me.


7 6 As they were going off, Jesus began to speak to the crowds about John,What did you go out to the desert to see? A reed swayed by the wind?


8 Then what did you go out to see? Someone dressed in fine clothing? Those who wear fine clothing are in royal palaces.


9 Then why did you go out? To see a prophet? 7 Yes, I tell you, and more than a prophet.


10 This is the one about whom it is written: Behold, I am sending my messenger ahead of you; he will prepare your way before you.'


11 Amen, I say to you, among those born of women there has been none greater than John the Baptist; yet the least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. 8


12 From the days of John the Baptist until now, the kingdom of heaven suffers violence, 9 and the violent are taking it by force.


13 All the prophets and the law 10 prophesied up to the time of John.


14 And if you are willing to accept it, he is Elijah, the one who is to come.


15 Whoever has ears ought to hear.


16 To what shall I compare this generation? 11 It is like children who sit in marketplaces and call to one another,

17 'We played the flute for you, but you did not dance, we sang a dirge but you did not mourn.'


18 For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they said, 'He is possessed by a demon.'


19 The Son of Man came eating and drinking and they said,Look, he is a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners.' But wisdom is vindicated by her works.


20 Then he began to reproach the towns where most of his mighty deeds had been done, since they had not repented.


21 Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty deeds done in your midst had been done in Tyre and Sidon, 12 they would long ago have repented in sackcloth and ashes.


22 But I tell you, it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon on the day of judgment than for you.


23 And as for you, Capernaum: Will you be exalted to heaven? You will go down to the netherworld.' 13 For if the mighty deeds done in your midst had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day.


24 But I tell you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom on the day of judgment than for you.


25 At that time Jesus said in reply, 14I give praise to you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, for although you have hidden these things from the wise and the learned you have revealed them to the childlike.


26 Yes, Father, such has been your gracious will.


27 All things have been handed over to me by my Father. No one knows the Son except the Father, and no one knows the Father except the Son and anyone to whom the Son wishes to reveal him.


28 15Come to me, all you who labor and are burdened, 16 and I will give you rest.


29 17 Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am meek and humble of heart; and you will find rest for your selves.


30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden light.




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1 [1] The closing formula of the discourse refers back to the original addressees, the Twelve.

2 [11:2-12:50] The narrative section of the third book deals with the growing opposition to Jesus. It is largely devoted to disputes and attacks relating to faith and discipleship and thus contains much sayings-material, drawn in large part from Q.

3 [2] In prison: see Matthew 4:12; 14:1-12. The works of the Messiah: the deeds of Matthew 8-9.

4 [3] The question probably expresses a doubt of the Baptist that Jesus is the one who is to come (cf Malachi 3:1) because his mission has not been one of fiery judgment as John had expected (Matthew 3:2).

5 [5-6] Jesus' response is taken from passages of Isaiah (Isaiah 26:19; 29:18-19; 35:5-6; 61:1) that picture the time of salvation as marked by deeds such as those that Jesus is doing. The beatitude is a warning to the Baptist not to disbelieve because his expectations have not been met.

6 [7-19] Jesus' rebuke of John is counterbalanced by a reminder of the greatness of the Baptist's function (Matthew 11:7-15) that is followed by a complaint about those who have heeded neither John nor Jesus (Matthew 11:16-19).

7 [9-10] In common Jewish belief there had been no prophecy in Israel since the last of the Old Testament prophets, Malachi. The coming of a new prophet was eagerly awaited, and Jesus agrees that John was such. Yet he was more than a prophet, for he was the precursor of the one who would bring in the new and final age. The Old Testament quotation is a combination of Malachi 3:1; Exodus 23:20 with the significant change that the before me of Malachi becomes before you. The messenger now precedes not God, as in the original, but Jesus.

8 [11] John's preeminent greatness lies in his function of announcing the imminence of the kingdom (Matthew 3:1). But to be in the kingdom is so great a privilege that the least who has it is greater than the Baptist.

9 [12] The meaning of this difficult saying is probably that the opponents of Jesus are trying to prevent people from accepting the kingdom and to snatch it away from those who have received it.

10 [13] All the prophets and the law: Matthew inverts the usual order,law and prophets, and says that both have prophesied. This emphasis on the prophetic character of the law points to its fulfillment in the teaching of Jesus and to the transitory nature of some of its commandments (see the note on Matthew 5:17-20).

11 [16-19] See Luke 7:31-35. The meaning of the parable (Matthew 11:16-17) and its explanation (Matthew 11:18-19b) is much disputed. A plausible view is that the children of the parable are two groups, one of which proposes different entertainments to the other that will not agree with either proposal. The first represents John, Jesus, and their disciples; the second those who reject John for his asceticism and Jesus for his table association with those despised by the religiously observant. Matthew 11:19c (her works) forms an inclusion with Matthew 11:2 (the works of the Messiah). The original form of the saying is better preserved in Luke 7:35. . . wisdom is vindicated by all her children. There John and Jesus are the children of Wisdom; here the works of Jesus the Messiah are those of divine Wisdom, of which he is the embodiment. Some important textual witnesses, however, have essentially the same reading as in Luke.

12 [21] Tyre and Sidon were pagan cities denounced for their wickedness in the Old Testament; cf Joel 3:4-7.

13 [23] Capernaum's pride and punishment are described in language taken from the taunt song against the king of Babylon (Isaiah 14:13-15).

14 [25-27] This Q saying, identical with Luke 10:21-22 except for minor variations, introduces a joyous note into this section, so dominated by the theme of unbelief. While the wise and the learned, the scribes and Pharisees, have rejected Jesus' preaching and the significance of his mighty deeds, the childlike have accepted them. Acceptance depends upon the Father's revelation, but this is granted to those who are open to receive it and refused to the arrogant. Jesus can speak of all mysteries because he is the Son and there is perfect reciprocity of knowledge between him and the Father; what has been handed over to him is revealed only to those whom he wishes.

15 [28-29] These verses are peculiar to Matthew and are similar to Ben Sirach's invitation to learn wisdom and submit to her yoke (Sirach 51:23, 26).

16 [28] Who labor and are burdened: burdened by the law as expounded by the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 23:4).

17 [29] In place of the yoke of the law, complicated by scribal interpretation, Jesus invites the burdened to take the yoke of obedience to his word, under which they will find rest; cf Jeremiah 6:16.


Matthew Chapter 12

Chapter 12

1 1 At that time Jesus was going through a field of grain on the sabbath. His disciples were hungry and began to pick the heads 2 of grain and eat them.


2 When the Pharisees saw this, they said to him, See, your disciples are doing what is unlawful to do on the sabbath.


3 He said to them, 3 Have you not read what David did when he and his companions were hungry,


4 how he went into the house of God and ate the bread of offering, which neither he nor his companions but only the priests could lawfully eat?


5 4 Or have you not read in the law that on the sabbath the priests serving in the temple violate the sabbath and are innocent?


6 I say to you, something greater than the temple is here.


7 5 If you knew what this meant,I desire mercy, not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned these innocent men.


8 6 For the Son of Man is Lord of the sabbath.


9 Moving on from there, he went into their synagogue.


10 And behold, there was a man there who had a withered hand. They questioned him, Is it lawful to cure on the sabbath?7 so that they might accuse him.


11 8 He said to them, Which one of you who has a sheep that falls into a pit on the sabbath will not take hold of it and lift it out?


12 How much more valuable a person is than a sheep. So it is lawful to do good on the sabbath.


13 Then he said to the man, Stretch out your hand. He stretched it out, and it was restored as sound as the other.


14 But the Pharisees 9 went out and took counsel against him to put him to death.


15 10 11 When Jesus realized this, he withdrew from that place. Many (people) followed him, and he cured them all,


16 but he warned them not to make him known.


17 This was to fulfill what had been spoken through Isaiah the prophet:


18 Behold, my servant whom I have chosen, my beloved in whom I delight; I shall place my spirit upon him, and he will proclaim justice to the Gentiles.


19 He will not contend 12 or cry out, nor will anyone hear his voice in the streets.


20 A bruised reed he will not break, a smoldering wick he will not quench, until he brings justice to victory.


21 And in his name the Gentiles will hope.13


22 14 Then they brought to him a demoniac who was blind and mute. He cured the mute person so that he could speak and see.


23 15 All the crowd was astounded, and said, Could this perhaps be the Son of David?


24 16 But when the Pharisees heard this, they said, This man drives out demons only by the power of Beelzebul, the prince of demons.


25 But he knew what they were thinking and said to them, 17 Every kingdom divided against itself will be laid waste, and no town or house divided against itself will stand.


26 And if Satan drives out Satan, he is divided against himself; how, then, will his kingdom stand?


27 And if I drive out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your own people 18 drive them out? Therefore they will be your judges.


28 19 But if it is by the Spirit of God that I drive out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.


29 20 How can anyone enter a strong man's house and steal his property, unless he first ties up the strong man? Then he can plunder his house.


30 21 Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gather with me scatters.


31 Therefore, I say to you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven people, but blasphemy against the Spirit 22 will not be forgiven.


32 And whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven; but whoever speaks against the holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come.


33 Either declare 23 the tree good and its fruit is good, or declare the tree rotten and its fruit is rotten, for a tree is known by its fruit.


34 24 You brood of vipers, how can you say good things when you are evil? For from the fullness of the heart the mouth speaks.


35 A good person brings forth good out of a store of goodness, but an evil person brings forth evil out of a store of evil.


36 25 I tell you, on the day of judgment people will render an account for every careless word they speak.


37 By your words you will be acquitted, and by your words you will be condemned.


38 26 Then some of the scribes and Pharisees said to him, Teacher, 27 we wish to see a sign from you.


39 He said to them in reply, An evil and unfaithful 28 generation seeks a sign, but no sign will be given it except the sign of Jonah the prophet.


40 Just as Jonah was in the belly of the whale three days and three nights, 29 so will the Son of Man be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights.


41 30 At the judgment, the men of Nineveh will arise with this generation and condemn it, because they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and there is something greater than Jonah here.


42 At the judgment the queen of the south will arise with this generation and condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and there is something greater than Solomon here.


43 31 When an unclean spirit goes out of a person it roams through arid regions searching for rest but finds none.


44 Then it says,I will return to my home from which I came.' But upon returning, it finds it empty, swept clean, and put in order.


45 Then it goes and brings back with itself seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they move in and dwell there; and the last condition of that person is worse than the first. Thus it will be with this evil generation.


46 32 While he was still speaking to the crowds, his mother and his brothers appeared outside, wishing to speak with him.


47 (Someone told him, Your mother and your brothers are standing outside, asking to speak with you.) 33


48 But he said in reply to the one who told him, Who is my mother? Who are my brothers?


49 And stretching out his hand toward his disciples, he said, Here are my mother and my brothers.


50 For whoever does the will of my heavenly Father is my brother, and sister, and mother.



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1 [1-14] Matthew here returns to the Marcan order that he left in Matthew 9:18. The two stories depend on Mark 2:23-28; 3:1-6 respectively, and are the only places in either gospel that deal explicitly with Jesus' attitude toward sabbath observance.

2 [1-2] The picking of the heads of grain is here equated with reaping, which was forbidden on the sabbath (Exodus 34:21).

3 [3-4] See 1 Sam 21:2-7. In the Marcan parallel (Mark 2:25-26) the high priest is called Abiathar, although in 1 Sam this action is attributed to Ahimelech. The Old Testament story is not about a violation of the sabbath rest; its pertinence to this dispute is that a violation of the law was permissible because of David's men being without food.

4 [5-6] This and the following argument (Matthew 12:7) are peculiar to Matthew. The temple service seems to be the changing of the showbread on the sabbath (Lev 24:8) and the doubling on the sabbath of the usual daily holocausts (Numbers 28:9-10). The argument is that the law itself requires work that breaks the sabbath rest, because of the higher duty of temple service. If temple duties outweigh the sabbath law, how much more does the presence of Jesus, with his proclamation of the kingdom (something greater than the temple), justify the conduct of his disciples.

5 [7] See the note on Matthew 9:13.

6 [8] The ultimate justification for the disciples' violation of the sabbath rest is that Jesus, the Son of Man, has supreme authority over the law.

Rabbinic tradition later than the gospels allowed relief to be given to a sufferer on the sabbath if life was in danger. This may also have been the view of Jesus' Pharisaic contemporaries. But the case here is not about one in danger of death.

8 [11] Matthew omits the question posed by Jesus in Mark 3:4 and substitutes one about rescuing a sheep on the sabbath, similar to that in Luke 14:5.

9 [14] See Mark 3:6. Here the plan to bring about Jesus' death is attributed to the Pharisees only. This is probably due to the situation of Matthew's church, when the sole opponents were the Pharisees.

10 [15-21] Matthew follows Mark 3:7-12 but summarizes his source in two verses (Matthew 12:15, 16) that pick up the withdrawal, the healings, and the command for silence. To this he adds a fulfillment citation from the first Servant Song (Isaiah 42:1-4) that does not correspond exactly to either the Hebrew or the LXX of that passage. It is the longest Old Testament citation in this gospel, emphasizing the meekness of Jesus, the Servant of the Lord, and foretelling the extension of his mission to the Gentiles.

11 [15] Jesus' knowledge of the Pharisees' plot and his healing all are peculiar to Matthew.

12 [19] The servant's not contending is seen as fulfilled in Jesus' withdrawal from the disputes narrated in Matthew 12:1-14.

13 [21] Except for a minor detail, Matthew here follows the LXX, although the meaning of the Hebrew (the coastlands will wait for his teaching) is similar.

14 [22-32] For the exorcism, see the note on Matthew 9:32-34. The long discussion combines Marcan and Q material (Mark 3:22-30; Luke 11:19-20, 23; 12:10). Mark 3:20-21 is omitted, with a consequent lessening of the sharpness of Matthew 12:48.

15 [23] See the note on Matthew 9:27.

16 [24] See the note on Matthew 10:25.

17 [25-26] Jesus' first response to the Pharisees' charge is that if it were true, Satan would be destroying his own kingdom.

18 [27] Besides pointing out the absurdity of the charge, Jesus asks how the work of Jewish exorcists (your own people) is to be interpreted. Are they, too, to be charged with collusion with Beelzebul? For an example of Jewish exorcism see Josephus, Antiquities 8,2,5, 42-49.

19 [28] The Q parallel (Luke 11:20) speaks of the finger rather than of the spirit of God. While the difference is probably due to Matthew's editing, he retains the kingdom of God rather than changing it to his usual kingdom of heaven. Has come upon you: see Matthew 4:17.

20 [29] A short parable illustrates what Jesus is doing. The strong man is Satan, whom Jesus has tied up and whose house he is plundering. Jewish expectation was that Satan would be chained up in the last days (Rev 20:2); Jesus' exorcisms indicate that those days have begun.

21 [30] This saying, already attached to the preceding verses in Q (see Luke 11:23), warns that there can be no neutrality where Jesus is concerned. Its pertinence in a context where Jesus is addressing not the neutral but the bitterly opposed is not clear. The accusation of scattering, however, does fit the situation. Jesus is the shepherd of God's people (Matthew 2:6), his mission is to the lost sheep of Israel (Matthew 15:24); the Pharisees, who oppose him, are guilty of scattering the sheep.

22 [31] Blasphemy against the Spirit: the sin of attributing to Satan (Matthew 12:24) what is the work of the Spirit of God (Matthew 12:28).

23 [33] Declare: literally, make. The meaning of this verse is obscure. Possibly it is a challenge to the Pharisees either to declare Jesus and his exorcisms good or both of them bad. A tree is known by its fruit; if the fruit is good, so must the tree be. If the driving out of demons is good, so must its source be.

24 [34] The admission of Jesus' goodness cannot be made by the Pharisees, for they are evil, and the words that proceed from their evil hearts cannot be good.

25 [36-37] If on the day of judgment people will be held accountable for even their careless words, the vicious accusations of the Pharisees will surely lead to their condemnation.

26 [38-42] This section is mainly from Q (see Luke 11:29-32). Mark 8:11-12, which Matthew has followed in Matthew 16:1-4, has a similar demand for a sign. The scribes and Pharisees refuse to accept the exorcisms of Jesus as authentication of his claims and demand a sign that will end all possibility of doubt. Jesus' response is that no such sign will be given. Because his opponents are evil and see him as an agent of Satan, nothing will convince them.

27 [38] Teacher: see the note on Matthew 8:19. In Matthew 16:1 the request is for a sign from heaven (Mark 8:11).

28 [39] Unfaithful: literally, adulterous. The covenant between God and Israel was portrayed as a marriage bond, and unfaithfulness to the covenant as adultery; cf Hosea 2:4-14; Jeremiah 3:6-10.

29 [40] See Jonah 2:1. While in Q the sign was simply Jonah's preaching to the Ninevites (Luke 11:30, 32), Matthew here adds Jonah's sojourn in the belly of the whale for three days and three nights, a prefigurement of Jesus' sojourn in the abode of the dead and, implicitly, of his resurrection.

30 [41-42] The Ninevites who repented (see Jonah 3:1-10) and the queen of the south (i.e., of Sheba; see 1 Kings 10:1-13) were pagans who responded to lesser opportunities than have been offered to Israel in the ministry of Jesus, something greater than Jonah or Solomon. At the final judgment they will condemn the faithless generation that has rejected him.

31 [43-45] Another Q passage; cf Matthew 11:24-26. Jesus' ministry has broken Satan's hold over Israel, but the refusal of this evil generation to accept him will lead to a worse situation than what preceded his coming.

32 [46-50] See Mark 3:31-35. Matthew has omitted Mark 3:20-21 which is taken up in Mark 3:31 (see the note on Matthew 12:22-32), yet the point of the story is the same in both gospels: natural kinship with Jesus counts for nothing; only one who does the will of his heavenly Father belongs to his true family.

33 [47] This verse is omitted in some important textual witnesses, including Codex Sinaiticus (original reading) and Codex Vaticanus.


Matthew Chapter 13

Chapter 13

1 1 On that day, Jesus went out of the house and sat down by the sea.


2 Such large crowds gathered around him that he got into a boat and sat down, and the whole crowd stood along the shore.


3 And he spoke to them at length in parables, 2 saying: A sower went out to sow. 3


4 And as he sowed, some seed fell on the path, and birds came and ate it up.


5 Some fell on rocky ground, where it had little soil. It sprang up at once because the soil was not deep,


6 and when the sun rose it was scorched, and it withered for lack of roots.


7 Some seed fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked it.


8 But some seed fell on rich soil, and produced fruit, a hundred or sixty or thirtyfold.


9 Whoever has ears ought to hear.


10 The disciples approached him and said, Why do you speak to them in parables?


11 4 He said to them in reply, Because knowledge of the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven has been granted to you, but to them it has not been granted.


12 To anyone who has, more will be given 5 and he will grow rich; from anyone who has not, even what he has will be taken away.


13 6 This is why I speak to them in parables, becausethey look but do not see and hear but do not listen or understand.'


14 Isaiah's prophecy is fulfilled in them, which says:You shall indeed hear but not understand you shall indeed look but never see.


15 Gross is the heart of this people, they will hardly hear with their ears, they have closed their eyes, lest they see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and be converted, and I heal them.'


16 7 But blessed are your eyes, because they see, and your ears, because they hear.


17 Amen, I say to you, many prophets and righteous people longed to see what you see but did not see it, and to hear what you hear but did not hear it.


18 8 Hear then the parable of the sower.


19 The seed sown on the path is the one who hears the word of the kingdom without understanding it, and the evil one comes and steals away what was sown in his heart.


20 The seed sown on rocky ground is the one who hears the word and receives it at once with joy.


21 But he has no root and lasts only for a time. When some tribulation or persecution comes because of the word, he immediately falls away.


22 </