7 3 Solomon became the father of Rehoboam, Rehoboam the father of Abijah, Abijah the father of Asaph.
10 Hezekiah became the father of Manasseh, Manasseh the father of Amos, 4 Amos the father of Josiah.
17 Thus the total number of generations from Abraham to David is fourteen generations; from David to the Babylonian exile, fourteen generations; from the Babylonian exile to the Messiah, fourteen generations. 5
19 Joseph her husband, since he was a righteous man, 8 yet unwilling to expose her to shame, decided to divorce her quietly.
20 Such was his intention when, behold, the angel of the Lord 9 appeared to him in a dream and said, "Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary your wife into your home. For it is through the holy Spirit that this child has been conceived in her.
21 She will bear a son and you are to name him Jesus, 10 because he will save his people from their sins."
23 11 "Behold, the virgin shall be with child and bear a son, and they shall name him Emmanuel," which means "God is with us."
25 He had no relations with her until she bore a son, 12 and he named him Jesus.
1 [1:1-2:23] The infancy narrative forms the prologue of the gospel. Consisting of a genealogy and five stories, it presents the coming of Jesus as the climax of
2  The Son of David, the son of Abraham: two links of the genealogical chain are singled out. Although the later, David is placed first in order to emphasize that Jesus is the royal Messiah. The mention of Abraham may be due not only to his being the father of the nation Israel but to Matthew's interest in the universal scope of Jesus' mission; cf Genesis 22:18 ". . . . in your descendants all the nations of the earth shall find blessing."
3  The successor of Abijah was not Asaph but Asa (see 1 Chron 3:10). Some textual witnesses read the latter name; however, Asaph is better attested. Matthew may have deliberately introduced the psalmist Asaph into the genealogy (and in Matthew 1:10 the prophet Amos) in order to show that Jesus is the fulfillment not only of the promises made to David (see 2 Sam 7) but of all the Old Testament.
5  Matthew is concerned with fourteen generations, probably because fourteen is the numerical value of the Hebrew letters forming the name o,, , f David. In the second section of the genealogy (Matthew 1:6b-11), three kings of Judah, Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah, have been omitted (see 1 Chron 3:11-12), so that there are fourteen generations in that section. Yet the third (Matthew 1:12-16) apparently has only thirteen. Since Matthew here emphasizes that each section has fourteen, it is unlikely that the thirteen of the last was due to his oversight. Some scholars suggest that Jesus who is called the Messiah (Matthew 1:16b) doubles the final member of the chain: Jesus, born within the family of David, opens up the new age as Messiah, so that in fact there are fourteen generations in the third section. This is perhaps too subtle, and the hypothesis of a slip not on the part of Matthew but of a later scribe seems likely. On Messiah, see the note on Luke 2:11.
6 [18-25] This first story of the infancy narrative spells out what is summarily indicated in Matthew 1:16. The virginal conception of Jesus is the work of the Spirit of God. Joseph's decision to divorce Mary is overcome by the heavenly command that he take her into his home and accept the child as his own. The natural genealogical line is broken but the promises to David are fulfilled; through Joseph's adoption the child belongs to the family of David. Matthew sees the virginal conception as the fulfillment of Isaiah 7:14.
7  Betrothed to Joseph: betrothal was the first part of the marriage, constituting a man and woman as husband and wife. Subsequent infidelity was considered adultery. The betrothal was followed some months later by the husband's taking his wife into his home, at which time normal married life began.
8  A righteous man: as a devout observer of the Mosaic law, Joseph wished to break his union with someone whom he suspected of gross violation of the law. It is commonly said that the law required him to do so, but the texts usually given in support of that view, e.g., Deut 22:20-21 do not clearly pertain to Joseph's situation. Unwilling to expose her to shame: the penalty for proved adultery was death by stoning; cf Deut 22:21-23.
9  The angel of the Lord: in the Old Testament a common designation of God in communication with a human being. In a dream: see Matthew 2:13, 19, 22. These dreams may be meant to recall the dreams of Joseph, son of Jacob the patriarch (Genesis 37:5-11:19). A closer parallel is the dream of Amram, father of Moses, related by Josephus (Antiquities 2,9,3; 212, 215-16).
10  Jesus: in first-century Judaism the Hebrew name Joshua (Greek Iesous) meaning "Yahweh helps" was interpreted as "Yahweh saves."
11  God is with us: God's promise of deliverance to
12  Until she bore a son: the evangelist is concerned to emphasize that Joseph was not responsible for the conception of Jesus. The Greek word translated "until" does not imply normal marital conduct after Jesus' birth, nor does it exclude it.
2 saying, ＂Where is the newborn king of the Jews? We saw his star 3 at its rising and have come to do him homage.＂
4 Assembling all the chief priests and the scribes of the people, he inquired of them where the Messiah was to be born. 4
7 Then Herod called the magi secretly and ascertained from them the time of the star's appearance.
11 5 and on entering the house they saw the child with Mary his mother. They prostrated themselves and did him homage. Then they opened their treasures and offered him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh.
13 6 When they had departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and said,＂Rise, take the child and his mother, flee to Egypt, 7 and stay there until I tell you. Herod is going to search for the child to destroy him.＂
15 8 He stayed there until the death of Herod, that what the Lord had said through the prophet might be fulfilled, ＂Out of Egypt I called my son.＂
16 When Herod realized that he had been deceived by the magi, he became furious. He ordered the massacre of all the boys in
18 9 ＂A voice was heard in Ramah, sobbing and loud lamentation; Rachel weeping for her children, and she would not be consoled, since they were no more.＂
19 When Herod had died, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in
20 and said, ＂Rise, take the child and his mother and go to the land of Israel, for those who sought the child's life are dead.＂ 10
22 But when he heard that Archelaus was ruling over
23 12 He went and dwelt in a town called Nazareth, so that what had been spoken through the prophets might be fulfilled, ＂He shall be called a Nazorean.＂
1 [1-12] The future rejection of Jesus by
2  In the days of King Herod: Herod reigned from 37 to 4 B.C. Magi: originally a designation of the Persian priestly caste, the word became used of those who were regarded as having more than human knowledge. Matthew's magi are astrologers.
3  We saw his star: it was a common ancient belief that a new star appeared at the time of a ruler's birth. Matthew also draws upon the Old Testament story of Balaam, who had prophesied that ＂A star shall advance from Jacob＂ (Numbers 24:17), though there the star means not an astral phenomenon but the king himself.
4  Herod's consultation with the chief priests and scribes has some similarity to a Jewish legend about the child Moses in which the ＂sacred scribes＂ warn Pharaoh about the imminent birth of one who will deliver Israel from Egypt and the king makes plans to destroy him. Matthew 2:11: Cf Psalm 72:10, 15; Isaiah 60:6. These Old Testament texts led to the interpretation of the magi as kings.
7  Flee to
8  The fulfillment citation is taken from Hosea 11:1.
9  Jeremiah 31:15 portrays Rachel, wife of the patriarch Jacob, weeping for her children taken into exile at the time of the Assyrian invasion of the northern kingdom (722-21 B.C.).
10  For those who sought the child's life are dead: Moses, who had fled from Egypt because the Pharaoh sought to kill him (see Exodus 2:15), was told to return there, ＂for all the men who sought your life are dead＂ (Exodus 4:19).
11  With the agreement of the emperor Augustus, Archelaus received half of his father's kingdom, including
2 (and) saying, ＂Repent, 3 for the kingdom of heaven is at hand!＂
3 4 It was of him that the prophet Isaiah had spoken when he said: ＂A voice of one crying out in the desert, 'Prepare the way of the Lord, make straight his paths.'＂
4 5 John wore clothing made of camel's hair and had a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey.
6 and were being baptized by him in the
7 When he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees 7 coming to his baptism, he said to them, ＂You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath?
11 I am baptizing you with water, for repentance, but the one who is coming after me is mightier than I. I am not worthy to carry his sandals. He will baptize you with the holy Spirit and fire. 8
12 9 His winnowing fan is in his hand. He will clear his threshing floor and gather his wheat into his barn, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire.＂
14 11 John tried to prevent him, saying, ＂I need to be baptized by you, and yet you are coming to me?＂
16 12 After Jesus was baptized, he came up from the water and behold, the heavens were opened (for him), and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove (and) coming upon him.
17 And a voice came from the heavens, saying, ＂This is my beloved Son, 13 with whom I am well pleased.＂
1  Unlike Luke, Matthew says nothing of the Baptist's origins and does not make him a relative of Jesus. The
2 [1-12] Here Matthew takes up the order of Jesus' ministry found in the gospel of Mark, beginning with the preparatory preaching of John the Baptist.
3  Repent: the Baptist calls for a change of heart and conduct, a turning of one's life from rebellion to obedience towards God. The kingdom of heaven is at hand: ＂heaven＂ (literally, ＂the heavens＂) is a substitute for the name ＂God＂ that was avoided by devout Jews of the time out of reverence. The expression ＂the kingdom of heaven＂ occurs only in the gospel of Matthew. It means the effective rule of God over his people. In its fullness it includes not only human obedience to God's word, but the triumph of God over physical evils, supremely over death. In the expectation found in Jewish apocalyptic, the kingdom was to be ushered in by a judgment in which sinners would be condemned and perish, an expectation shared by the Baptist. This was modified in Christian understanding where the kingdom was seen as being established in stages, culminating with the parousia of Jesus.
5  The clothing of John recalls the austere dress of the prophet Elijah (2 Kings 1:8). The expectation of the return of Elijah from heaven to prepare
6  Ritual washing was practiced by various groups in
7  Pharisees and Sadducees: the former were marked by devotion to the law, written and oral, and the scribes, experts in the law, belonged predominantly to this group. The Sadducees were the priestly aristocratic party, centered in
8  Baptize you with the holy Spirit and fire: the water baptism of John will be followed by an ＂immersion＂ of the repentant in the cleansing power of the Spirit of God, and of the unrepentant in the destroying power of God's judgment. However, some see the holy Spirit and fire as synonymous, and the effect of this ＂baptism＂ as either purification or destruction. See the note on Luke 3:16
9  The discrimination between the good and the bad is compared to the procedure by which a farmer separates wheat and chaff. The winnowing fan was a forklike shovel with which the threshed wheat was thrown into the air. The kernels fell to the ground; the light chaff, blown off by the wind, was gathered and burned up.
10 [13-17] The baptism of Jesus is the occasion on which he is equipped for his ministry by the holy Spirit and proclaimed to be the Son of God.
11 [14-15] This dialogue, peculiar to Matthew, reveals John's awareness of Jesus' superiority to him as the mightier one who is coming and who will baptize with the holy Spirit (Matthew 3:11). His reluctance to admit Jesus among the sinners whom he is baptizing with water is overcome by Jesus' response. To fulfill all righteousness: in this gospel to fulfill usually refers to fulfillment of prophecy, and righteousness to moral conduct in conformity with God's will. Here, however, as in Matthew 5:6; 6:33, righteousness seems to mean the saving activity of God. To fulfill all righteousness is to submit to the plan of God for the salvation of the human race. This involves Jesus' identification with sinners; hence the propriety of his accepting John's baptism.
2 He fasted for forty days and forty nights, 2 and afterwards he was hungry.
4 3 He said in reply,＂It is written: 'One does not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes forth from the mouth of God.'＂
5 4 Then the devil took him to the holy city, and made him stand on the parapet of the temple,
6 and said to him,＂If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down. For it is written: 'He will command his angels concerning you and 'with their hands they will support you, lest you dash your foot against a stone.'＂
9 and he said to him,＂All these I shall give to you, if you will prostrate yourself and worship me.＂ 5
17 7 From that time on, Jesus began to preach and say,＂Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.＂
20 9 At once they left their nets and followed him.
24 12 His fame spread to all of Syria, and they brought to him all who were sick with various diseases and racked with pain, those who were possessed, lunatics, and paralytics, and he cured them.
25 And great crowds from Galilee, the Decapolis, 13
1 [1-11] Jesus, proclaimed Son of God at his baptism, is subjected to a triple temptation. Obedience to the Father is a characteristic of true sonship, and Jesus is tempted by the devil to rebel against God, overtly in the third case, more subtly in the first two. Each refusal of Jesus is expressed in language taken from the Book of Deuteronomy (Deut 8:3; 6:13, 16). The testings of Jesus resemble those of Israel during the wandering in the desert and later in Canaan, and the victory of Jesus, the true Israel and the true Son, contrasts with the failure of the ancient and disobedient＂son,＂ the old Israel. In the temptation account Matthew is almost identical with Luke; both seem to have drawn upon the same source.
2  Forty days and forty nights: the same time as that during which Moses remained on Sinai (Exodus 24:18). The time reference, however, seems primarily intended to recall the forty years during which
6 [12-17] Isaiah's prophecy of the light rising upon Zebulun and Naphtali (Isaiah 8:22-9:1) is fulfilled in Jesus' residence at
7  At the beginning of his preaching Jesus takes up the words of John the Baptist (Matthew 3:2) although with a different meaning; in his ministry the kingdom of heaven has already begun to be present (Matthew 12:28).
8 [18-22] The call of the first disciples promises them a share in Jesus' work and entails abandonment of family and former way of life. Three of the four, Simon, James, and John, are distinguished among the disciples by a closer relation with Jesus (Matthew 17:1; 26:37).
9  Here and in Matthew 4:22, as in Mark (Mark 1:16-20) and unlike the Lucan account (Luke 5:1-11), the disciples' response is motivated only by Jesus' invitation, an element that emphasizes his mysterious power.
10 [23-25] This summary of Jesus' ministry concludes the narrative part of the first book of Matthew's gospel (Matthew 3-4). The activities of his ministry are teaching, proclaiming the gospel, and healing; cf Matthew 9:35.
11  Their synagogues: Matthew usually designates the Jewish synagogues as their synagogue(s) (Matthew 9:35; 10:17; 12:9; 13:54) or, in address to Jews, your synagogues (Matthew 23:34), an indication that he wrote after the break between church and synagogue.
13  The Decapolis: a federation of Greek cities in
4 5 Blessed are they who mourn, for they will be comforted.
5 6 Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the land.
6 Blessed are they who hunger and thirst for righteousness, 7 for they will be satisfied.
8 8 Blessed are the clean of heart, for they will see God.
10 Blessed are they who are persecuted for the sake of righteousness, 9 for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
12 10 Rejoice and be glad, for your reward will be great in heaven. Thus they persecuted the prophets who were before you.
19 Therefore, whoever breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven. But whoever obeys and teaches these commandments will be called greatest in the kingdom of heaven
22 17 But I say to you, whoever is angry 18 with his brother will be liable to judgment, and whoever says to his brother, 'Raqa,' will be answerable to the Sanhedrin, and whoever says, 'You fool,' will be liable to fiery Gehenna.
25 Settle with your opponent quickly while on the way to court with him. Otherwise your opponent will hand you over to the judge, and the judge will hand you over to the guard, and you will be thrown into prison.
27 19 ＂You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.'
28 But I say to you, everyone who looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart.
29 20 If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one of your members than to have your whole body thrown into Gehenna.
31 21 ＂It was also said, 'Whoever divorces his wife must give her a bill of divorce.'
33 22 ＂Again you have heard that it was said to your ancestors, 'Do not take a false oath, but make good to the Lord all that you vow.'
34 But I say to you, do not swear at all; 23 not by heaven, for it is God's throne;
37 24 Let your‘Yes’ mean ‘Yes,’ and your ‘No' mean ‘No.’ Anything more is from the evil one.
41 Should anyone press you into service for one mile, 26 go with him for two miles.
43 27 ＂You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.'
46 For if you love those who love you, what recompense will you have? Do not the tax collectors 28 do the same?
47 And if you greet your brothers only, what is unusual about that? Do not the pagans do the same? 29
48 So be perfect, 30 just as your heavenly Father is perfect.
1 [5:1-7:29] The first of the five discourses that are a central part of the structure of this gospel. It is the discourse section of the first book and contains sayings of Jesus derived from Q and from M. The Lucan parallel is in that gospel's ＂Sermon on the Plain＂ (Luke 6:20-49), although some of the sayings in Matthew's ＂Sermon on the Mount＂ have their parallels in other parts of Luke. The careful topical arrangement of the sermon is probably not due only to Matthew's editing; he seems to have had a structured discourse of Jesus as one of his sources. The form of that source may have been as follows: four beatitudes (Matthew 5:3-4, 6, 11-12), a section on the new righteousness with illustrations (Matthew 5:17, 20-24, 27-28, 33-48), a section on good works (Matthew 6:1-6, 16-18), and three warnings (Matthew 7:1-2, 15-21, 24-27).
3 [3-12] The form Blessed are (is) occurs frequently in the Old Testament in the Wisdom literature and in the psalms. Although modified by Matthew, the first, second, fourth, and ninth beatitudes have Lucan parallels (Matthew 5:3; Luke 6:20; Matthew 5:4; Luke 6:21, 22; Matthew 5:6; Luke 6:21a; Matthew 5:11-12; Luke 5:22-23). The others were added by the evangelist and are probably his own composition. A few manuscripts, Western and Alexandrian, and many versions and patristic quotations give the second and third beatitudes in inverted order.
4  The poor in spirit: in the Old Testament, the poor (anawim) are those who are without material possessions and whose confidence is in God (see Isaiah 61:1; Zephaniah 2:3; in the NAB the word is translated lowly and humble, respectively, in those texts). Matthew added in spirit in order either to indicate that only the devout poor were meant or to extend the beatitude to all, of whatever social rank, who recognized their complete dependence on God. The same phrase poor in spirit is found in the Qumran literature (1QM 14:7).
5  Cf Isaiah 61:2 ＂(The Lord has sent me) . . . to comfort all who mourn.＂ They will be comforted: here the passive is a ＂theological passive＂ equivalent to the active ＂God will comfort them＂; so also in Matthew 5:6, 7.
8  Cf Psalm 24:4. Only one ＂whose heart is clean＂ can take part in the temple worship. To be with God in the temple is described in Psalm 42:2 as ＂beholding his face,＂ but here the promise to the clean of heart is that they will see God not in the temple but in the coming kingdom.
9  Righteousness here, as usually in Matthew, means conduct in conformity with God's will.
10  The prophets who were before you: the disciples of Jesus stand in the line of the persecuted prophets of Israel. Some would see the expression as indicating also that Matthew considered all Christian disciples as prophets.
11 [13-16] By their deeds the disciples are to influence the world for good. They can no more escape notice than a city set on a mountain. If they fail in good works, they are as useless as flavorless salt or as a lamp whose light is concealed.
12  The unusual supposition of salt losing its flavor has led some to suppose that the saying refers to the salt of the Dead Sea that, because chemically impure, could lose its taste.
13 [17-20] This statement of Jesus' position concerning the Mosaic law is composed of traditional material from Matthew's sermon documentation (see the note on Matthew 5:1-7:29), other Q material (cf Matthew 18; Luke 16:17), and the evangelist's own editorial touches. To fulfill the law appears at first to mean a literal enforcement of the law in the least detail: until heaven and earth pass away nothing of the law will pass (Matthew 5:18). Yet the ＂passing away＂ of heaven and earth is not necessarily the end of the world understood, as in much apocalyptic literature, as the dissolution of the existing universe. The ＂turning of the ages＂ comes with the apocalyptic event of Jesus' death and resurrection, and those to whom this gospel is addressed are living in the new and final age, prophesied by Isaiah as the time of ＂new heavens and a new earth＂ (Isaiah 65:17; 66:22). Meanwhile, during Jesus' ministry when the kingdom is already breaking in, his mission remains within the framework of the law, though with significant anticipation of the age to come, as the following antitheses (Matthew 5:21-48) show.
14  Probably these commandments means those of the Mosaic law. But this is an interim ethic ＂until heaven and earth pas, s away.＂
15 [21-48] Six examples of the conduct demanded of the Christian disciple. Each deals with a commandment of the law, introduced by You have heard that it was said to your ancestors or an equivalent formula, followed by Jesus' teaching in respect to that commandment, But I say to you; thus their designation as ＂antitheses.＂ Three of them accept the Mosaic law but extend or deepen it (Matthew 5:21-22; 27-28; 43-44); three reject it as a standard of conduct for the disciples (Matthew 31-32; 33-37; 38-39).
17 [22-26] Reconciliation with an offended brother is urged in the admonition of Matthew 5:23-24 and the parable of Matthew 5:25-26 (Luke 12:58-59). The severity of the judge in the parable is a warning of the fate of unrepentant sinners in the coming judgment by God.
18  Anger is the motive behind murder, as the insulting epithets are steps that may lead to it. They, as well as the deed, are all forbidden. Raqa: an Aramaic word reqa' or reqa probably meaning ＂imbecile,＂＂blockhead,＂ a term of abuse. The ascending order of punishment, judgment (by a local council?), trial before the Sanhedrin, condemnation to Gehenna, points to a higher degree of seriousness in each of the offenses. Sanhedrin: the highest judicial body of Judaism. Gehenna: in Hebrew ge-hinnom, ＂Valley of Hinnom,＂ or ge ben-hinnom, ＂Valley of the son of Hinnom,＂ southwest of Jerusalem, the center of an idolatrous cult during the monarchy in which children were offered in sacrifice (see 2 Kings 23:10; Jeremiah 7:31). In Joshua 18:16 (Septuagint, Codex Vaticanus) the Hebrew is transliterated into Greek as gaienna, which appears in the New Testament as geenna. The concept of punishment of sinners by fire either after death or after the final judgment is found in Jewish apocalyptic literature (e.g., Enoch 90:26) but the name geenna is first given to the place of punishment in the New Testament.
20 [29-30] No sacrifice is too great to avoid total destruction in Gehenna.
21 [31-32] See Deut 24:1-5. The Old Testament commandment that a bill of divorce be given to the woman assumes the legitimacy of divorce itself. It is this that Jesus denies. (Unless the marriage is unlawful): this ＂exceptive clause,＂ as it is often called, occurs also in Matthew 19:9, where the Greek is slightly different. There are other sayings of Jesus about divorce that prohibit it absolutely (see Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18; cf 1 Cor 7:10, 11b), and most scholars agree that they represent the stand of Jesus. Matthew's ＂exceptive clauses＂ are understood by some as a modification of the absolute prohibition. It seems, however, that the unlawfulness that Matthew gives as a reason why a marriage must be broken refers to a situation peculiar to his community: the violation of Mosaic law forbidding marriage between persons of certain blood and/or legal relationship (Lev 18:6-18). Marriages of that sort were regarded as incest (porneia), but some rabbis allowed Gentile converts to Judaism who had contracted such marriages to remain in them. Matthew's ＂exceptive clause＂ is against such permissiveness for Gentile converts to Christianity; cf the similar prohibition of porneia in Acts 15:20, 29. In this interpretation, the clause constitutes no exception to the absolute prohibition of divorce when the marriage is lawful.
23 [34-36] The use of these oath formularies that avoid the divine name is in fact equivalent to swearing by it, for all the things sworn by are related to God.
24  Let your `Yes' mean `Yes,' and your `No' mean `No': literally, ＂let your speech be 'Yes, yes,' 'No, no.' ＂ Some have understood this as a milder form of oath, permitted by Jesus. In view of Matthew 5:34, ＂Do not swear at all,＂ that is unlikely. From the evil one: i.e., from the devil. Oath-taking presupposes a sinful weakness of the human race, namely, the tendency to lie. Jesus demands of his disciples a truthfulness that makes oaths unnecessary.
25 [38-42] See Lev 24:20. The Old Testament commandment was meant to moderate vengeance; the punishment should not exceed the injury done. Jesus forbids even this proportionate retaliation. Of the five examples that follow, only the first deals directly with retaliation for evil; the others speak of liberality.
26  Roman garrisons in Palestine had the right to requisition the property and services of the native population.
27 [43-48] See Lev 19:18. There is no Old Testament commandment demanding hatred of one's enemy, but the ＂neighbor＂ of the love commandment was understood as one's fellow countryman. Both in the Old Testament (Psalm 139:19-22) and at Qumran (1QS 9:21) hatred of evil persons is assumed to be right. Jesus extends the love commandment to the enemy and the persecutor. His disciples, as children of God, must imitate the example of their Father, who grants his gifts of sun and rain to both the good and the bad.
2 When you give alms, do not blow a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites 2 do in the synagogues and in the streets to win the praise of others. Amen, I say to you, they have received their reward.
10 your kingdom come, 7 your will be done, on earth as in heaven.
11 8 Give us today our daily bread;
12 and forgive us our debts, 9 as we forgive our debtors;
13 and do not subject us to the final test, 10 but deliver us from the evil one.
14 11 If you forgive others their transgressions, your heavenly Father will forgive you.
16 ＂When you fast, 12 do not look gloomy like the hypocrites. They neglect their appearance, so that they may appear to others to be fasting. Amen, I say to you, they have received their reward.
22 14 ＂The lamp of the body is the eye. If your eye is sound, your whole body will be filled with light;
24 15 ＂No one can serve two masters. He will either hate one and love the other, or be devoted to one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon.
25 16 ＂Therefore I tell you, do not worry about your life, what you will eat (or drink), or about your body, what you will wear. Is not life more than food and the body more than clothing?
27 Can any of you by worrying add a single moment to your life-span? 17
30 18 If God so clothes the grass of the field, which grows today and is thrown into the oven tomorrow, will he not much more provide for you, O you of little faith?
33 But seek first the kingdom (of God) and his righteousness, 19 and all these things will be given you besides.
1 [1-18] The sermon continues with a warning against doing good in order to be seen and gives three examples, almsgiving (Matthew 6:2-4), prayer (Matthew 6:5-15), and fasting (Matthew 6:16-18). In each, the conduct of the hypocrites (Matthew 6:2) is contrasted with that demanded of the disciples. The sayings about reward found here and elsewhere (Matthew 5:12, 46; 10:41-42) show that this is a genuine element of Christian moral exhortation. Possibly to underline the difference between the Christian idea of reward and that of the hypocrites, the evangelist uses two different Greek verbs to express the rewarding of the disciples and that of the hypocrites; in the latter case it is the verb apecho, a commercial term for giving a receipt for what has been paid in full (Matthew 6:2, 5, 16).
2  The hypocrites: the scribes and Pharisees, see Matthew 23:13, 15, 23, 25, 27, 29. The designation reflects an attitude resulting not only from the controversies at the time of Jesus' ministry but from the opposition between Pharisaic Judaism and the
3 [7-15] Matthew inserts into his basic traditional material an expansion of the material on prayer that includes the model prayer, the ＂Our Father.＂ That prayer is found in Luke 11:2-4 in a different context and in a different form.
4  The example of what Christian prayer should be like contrasts it now not with the prayer of the hypocrites but with that of the pagans. Their babbling probably means their reciting a long list of divine names, hoping that one of them will force a response from the deity.
5 [9-13] Matthew's form of the ＂Our Father＂ follows the liturgical tradition of his church. Luke's less developed form also represents the liturgical tradition known to him, but it is probably closer than Matthew's to the original words of Jesus.
6  Our Father in heaven: this invocation is found in many rabbinic prayers of the post-New Testament period. Hallowed be your name: though the ＂hallowing＂ of the divine name could be understood as reverence done to God by human praise and by obedience to his will, this is more probably a petition that God hallow his own name, i.e., that he manifest his glory by an act of power (cf Ezekiel 36:23), in this case, by the establishment of his kingdom in its fullness.
7  Your kingdom come: this petition sets the tone of the prayer, and inclines the balance toward divine rather than human action in the petitions that immediately precede and follow it. Your will be done, on earth as in heaven: a petition that the divine purpose to establish the kingdom, a purpose present now in heaven, be executed on earth.
8  Give us today our daily bread: the rare Greek word epiousios, here daily, occurs in the New Testament only here and in Luke 11:3. A single occurrence of the word outside of these texts and of literature dependent on them has been claimed, but the claim is highly doubtful. The word may mean daily or ＂future＂ (other meanings have also been proposed). The latter would conform better to the eschatological tone of the whole prayer. So understood, the petition would be for a speedy coming of the kingdom (today), which is often portrayed in both the Old Testament and the New under the image of a feast (Isaiah 25:6; Matthew 8:11; 22:1-10; Luke 13:29; 14:15-24).
10  Jewish apocalyptic writings speak of a period of severe trial before the end of the age, sometimes called the ＂messianic woes.＂ This petition asks that the disciples be spared that final test.
11 [14-15] These verses reflect a set pattern called ＂Principles of Holy Law.＂ Human action now will be met by a corresponding action of God at the final judgment.
13 [19-34] The remaining material of this chapter is taken almost entirely from Q. It deals principally with worldly possessions, and the controlling thought is summed up in Matthew 6:24, the disciple can serve only one master and must choose between God and wealth (mammon). See further the note on Luke 16:9.
14 [22-23] In this context the parable probably points to the need for the disciple to be enlightened by Jesus' teaching on the transitory nature of earthly riches.
15  Mammon: an Aramaic word meaning wealth or property.
17  Life-span: the Greek word can also mean ＂stature.＂ If it is taken in that sense, the word here translated moment (literally, ＂cubit＂) must be translated literally as a unit not of time but of spatial measure. The cubit is about eighteen inches.
18  Of little faith: except for the parallel in Luke 12:28, the word translated of little faith is found in the New Testament only in Matthew. It is used by him of those who are disciples of Jesus but whose faith in him is not as deep as it should be (see Matthew 8:26; 14:31; 16:8 and the cognate noun in Matthew 17:20).
5 You hypocrite, 3 remove the wooden beam from your eye first; then you will see clearly to remove the splinter from your brother's eye.
6 ＂Do not give what is holy to dogs, 4 or throw your pearls before swine, lest they trample them underfoot, and turn and tear you to pieces.
12 6 ＂Do to others whatever you would have them do to you. This is the law and the prophets.
15 9 ＂Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep‘s clothing, but underneath are ravenous wolves.
21 ＂Not everyone who says to me,‘Lord, Lord,' will enter the kingdom of heaven, 10 but only the one who does the will of my Father in heaven.
23 Then I will declare to them solemnly, ‘I never knew you. 11 Depart from me, you evildoers.'
1 [1-12] In Matthew 7:1 Matthew returns to the basic traditional material of the sermon (Luke 6:37-38, 41-42). The governing thought is the correspondence between conduct toward one's fellows and God's conduct toward the one so acting.
2  This is not a prohibition against recognizing the faults of others, which would be hardly compatible with Matthew 7:5, 6 but against passing judgment in a spirit of arrogance, forgetful of one's own faults.
3  Hypocrite: the designation previously given to the scribes and Pharisees is here given to the Christian disciple who is concerned with the faults of another and ignores his own more serious offenses.
4  Dogs and swine were Jewish terms of contempt for Gentiles. This saying may originally have derived from a Jewish Christian community opposed to preaching the gospel (what is holy, pearls) to Gentiles. In the light of Matthew 28:19 that can hardly be Matthew's meaning. He may have taken the saying as applying to a Christian dealing with an obstinately impenitent fellow Christian (Matthew 18:17).
5 [9-10] There is a resemblance between a stone and a round loaf of bread and between a serpent and the scaleless fish called barbut.
6  See Luke 6:31. This saying, known since the eighteenth century as the ＂Golden Rule,＂ is found in both positive and negative form in pagan and Jewish sources, both earlier and later than the gospel. This is the law and the prophets is an addition probably due to the evangelist.
7 [13-28] The final section of the discourse is composed of a series of antitheses, contrasting two kinds of life within the Christian community, that of those who obey the words of Jesus and that of those who do not. Most of the sayings are from Q and are found also in Luke.
8 [13-14] The metaphor of the ＂two ways＂ was common in pagan philosophy and in the Old Testament. In Christian literature it is found also in the Didache (1-6) and the Epistle of Barnabas (18-20).
9 [15-20] Christian disciples who claimed to speak in the name of God are called prophets (Matthew 7:15) in Matthew 10:41; Matthew 23:34. They were presumably an important group within the
10 [21-23] The attack on the false prophets is continued, but is broadened to include those disciples who perform works of healing and exorcism in the name of Jesus (Lord) but live evil lives. Entrance into the kingdom is only for those who do the will of the Father. On the day of judgment (on that day) the morally corrupt prophets and miracle workers will be rejected by Jesus.
12 [24-27] The conclusion of the discourse (cf Luke 6:47-49). Here the relation is not between saying and doing as in Matthew 7:15-23 but between hearing and doing, and the words of Jesus are applied to every Christian (everyone who listens).
14  Not as their scribes: scribal instruction was a faithful handing down of the traditions of earlier teachers; Jesus' teaching is based on his own authority. Their scribes: for the implications of their, see the note on Matthew 4:23.
2 And then a leper 2 approached, did him homage, and said, ＂Lord, if you wish, you can make me clean.＂
4 3 Then Jesus said to him, ＂See that you tell no one, but go show yourself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses prescribed; that will be proof for them.＂
8 The centurion said in reply, 6 ＂Lord, I am not worthy to have you enter under my roof; only say the word and my servant will be healed.
10 When Jesus heard this, he was amazed and said to those following him, ＂Amen, I say to you, in no one in Israel 7 have I found such faith.
11 I say to you, 8 many will come from the east and the west, and will recline with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob at the banquet in the kingdom of heaven,
20 Jesus answered him, ＂Foxes have dens and birds of the sky have nests, but the Son of Man 15 has nowhere to rest his head.＂
22 16 But Jesus answered him, ＂Follow me, and let the dead bury their dead.＂
24 Suddenly a violent storm 18 came up on the sea, so that the boat was being swamped by waves; but he was asleep.
25 They came and woke him, saying, ＂Lord, save us! 19 We are perishing!＂
26 He said to them, ＂Why are you terrified, O you of little faith?＂ 20 Then he got up, rebuked the winds and the sea, and there was great calm.
28 When he came to the other side, to the territory of the Gadarenes, 21 two demoniacs who were coming from the tombs met him. They were so savage that no one could travel by that road.
29 They cried out, ＂What have you to do with us, 22 Son of God? Have you come here to torment us before the appointed time?＂
30 Some distance away a herd of many swine was feeding. 23
1 [8:1-9:38] This narrative section of the second book of the gospel is composed of nine miracle stories, most of which are found in Mark, although Matthew does not follow the Marcan order and abbreviates the stories radically. The stories are arranged in three groups of three, each group followed by a section composed principally of sayings of Jesus about discipleship. Matthew 9:35 is an almost verbatim repetition of Matthew 4:23. Each speaks of Jesus' teaching, preaching, and healing. The teaching and preaching form the content of Matthew 5-7; the healing, that of Matthew 8-9. Some scholars speak of a portrayal of Jesus as ＂Messiah of the Word＂ in Matthew 5-7 and ＂Messiah of the Deed＂ in Matthew 8-9. That is accurate so far as it goes, but there is also a strong emphasis on discipleship in Matthew 8-9; these chapters have not only christological but ecclesiological import.
4 [5-13] This story comes from Q (see Luke 7:1-10) and is also reflected in John 4:46-54. The similarity between the Q story and the Johannine is due to a common oral tradition, not to a common literary source. As in the later story of the daughter of the Canaanite woman (Matthew 15:21-28) Jesus here breaks with his usual procedure of ministering only to Israelites and anticipates the mission to the Gentiles.
6 [8-9] Acquainted by his position with the force of a command, the centurion expresses faith in the power of Jesus' mere word.
7  In no one in Israel: there is good textual attestation (e.g., Codex Sinaiticus) for a reading identical with that of Luke 7:9, ＂not even in Israel.＂ But that seems to be due to a harmonization of Matthew with Luke.
8 [11-12] Matthew inserts into the story a Q saying (see Luke 13:28-29) about the entrance of Gentiles into the kingdom and the exclusion of those Israelites who, though descended from the patriarchs and members of the chosen nation (the children of the kingdom), refused to believe in Jesus. There will be wailing and grinding of teeth: the first occurrence of a phrase used frequently in this gospel to describe final condemnation (Matthew 13:42, 50; 22:13; 24:51; 25:30). It is found elsewhere in the New Testament only in Luke 13:28.
9 [14-15] Cf Mark 1:29-31. Unlike Mark, Matthew has no implied request by others for the woman's cure. Jesus acts on his own initiative, and the cured woman rises and waits not on ＂them＂ (Mark 1:31) but on him.
11  This fulfillment citation from Isaiah 53:4 follows the MT, not the LXX. The prophet speaks of the Servant of the Lord who suffers vicariously for the sins (＂infirmities＂) of others; Matthew takes the infirmities as physical afflictions.
12 [18-22] This passage between the first and second series of miracles about following Jesus is taken from Q (see Luke 9:57-62). The third of the three sayings found in the source is absent from Matthew.
13  The other side: i.e., of the
14  Teacher: for Matthew, this designation of Jesus is true, for he has Jesus using it of himself (Matthew 10:24, 25; 23:8; 26:18), yet when it is used of him by others they are either his opponents (Matthew 9:11; 12:38; 17:24; 22:16, 24, 36) or, as here and in Matthew 19:16, well-disposed persons who cannot see more deeply. Thus it reveals an inadequate recognition of who Jesus is.
15  Son of Man: see the note on Mark 8:31. This is the first occurrence in Matthew of a term that appears in the New Testament only in sayings of Jesus, except for Acts 7:56 and possibly Matthew 9:6 (Mark 2:10; Luke 5:24). In Matthew it refers to Jesus in his ministry (seven times, as here), in his passion and resurrection (nine times, e.g., Matthew 17:22), and in his glorious coming at the end of the age (thirteen times, e.g., Matthew 24:30).
16  Let the dead bury their dead: the demand of Jesus overrides what both the Jewish and the Hellenistic world regarded as a filial obligation of the highest importance. See the note on Luke 9:60.
17  His disciples followed him: the first miracle in the second group (Matthew 8:23-9:8) is introduced by a verse that links it with the preceding sayings by the catchword ＂follow.＂ In Mark the initiative in entering the boat is taken by the disciples (Mark 4:35-41); here, Jesus enters first and the disciples follow.
18  Storm: literally, ＂earthquake,＂ a word commonly used in apocalyptic literature for the shaking of the old world when God brings in his kingdom. All the synoptics use it in depicting the events preceding the parousia of the Son of Man (Matthew 24:7; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:11). Matthew has introduced it here and in his account of the death and resurrection of Jesus (Matthew 27:51-54; 28:2).
20  You of little faith: see the note on Matthew 6:30. Great calm: Jesus' calming the sea may be meant to recall the Old Testament theme of God's control over the chaotic waters (Psalm 65:8; 89:10; 93:3-4; 107:29).
21  Gadarenes: this is the reading of Codex Vaticanus, supported by other important textual witnesses. The original reading of Codex Sinaiticus was Gazarenes, later changed to Gergesenes, and a few versions have Gerasenes. Each of these readings points to a different territory connected, respectively, with the cities
22  What have you to do with us?: see the note on John 2:4. Before the appointed time: the notion that evil spirits were allowed by God to afflict human beings until the time of the final judgment is found in Enoch 16:1 and Jubilees 10:7-10.
3 At that, some of the scribes 2 said to themselves, ＂This man is blaspheming.＂
6 3 But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins＂ --he then said to the paralytic, ＂Rise, pick up your stretcher, and go home.＂
8 4 When the crowds saw this they were struck with awe and glorified God who had given such authority to human beings.
10 While he was at table in his house, 7 many tax collectors and sinners came and sat with Jesus and his disciples.
11 The Pharisees saw this and said to his disciples, ＂Why does your teacher 8 eat with tax collectors and sinners?＂
12 He heard this and said, ＂Those who are well do not need a physician, but the sick do. 9
13 Go and learn the meaning of the words, ‘I desire mercy, not sacrifice.' 10 I did not come to call the righteous but sinners.＂
15 Jesus answered them, ＂Can the wedding guests mourn as long as the bridegroom is with them? The days will come when the bridegroom is taken away from them, and then they will fast. 11
16 No one patches an old cloak with a piece of unshrunken cloth, 12 for its fullness pulls away from the cloak and the tear gets worse.
20 A woman suffering hemorrhages for twelve years came up behind him and touched the tassel 15 on his cloak.
24 he said, ＂Go away! The girl is not dead but sleeping.＂ 16 And they ridiculed him.
32 As they were going out, 19 a demoniac who could not speak was brought to him,
34 20 But the Pharisees said, ＂He drives out demons by the prince of demons.＂
35 21 Jesus went around to all the towns and villages, teaching in their synagogues, proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom, and curing every disease and illness.
36 At the sight of the crowds, his heart was moved with pity for them because they were troubled and abandoned, 22 like sheep without a shepherd.
37 23 Then he said to his disciples, ＂The harvest is abundant but the laborers are few;
3  It is not clear whether ＂But that you may know . . . to forgive sins＂ is intended to be a continuation of the words of Jesus or a parenthetical comment of the evangelist to those who would hear or read this gospel. In any case, Matthew here follows the Marcan text.
4  Who had given such authority to human beings: a significant difference from Mark 2:12 (＂They . . . glorified God, saying, ＂We have never seen anything like this' ＂). Matthew's extension to human beings of the authority to forgive sins points to the belief that such authority was being claimed by Matthew's church.
6  A man named Matthew: Mark names this tax collector Levi (Mark 2:14). No such name appears in the four lists of the twelve who were the closest companions of Jesus (Matthew 10:2-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:14-16; Acts 1:13 [eleven, because of the defection of Judas Iscariot]), whereas all four list a Matthew, designated in Matthew 10:3 as ＂the tax collector.＂ The evangelist may have changed the ＂Levi＂ of his source to Matthew so that this man, whose call is given special notice, like that of the first four disciples (Matthew 4:18-22), might be included among the twelve. Another reason for the change may be that the disciple Matthew was the source of traditions peculiar to the church for which the evangelist was writing.
10  Go and learn . . . not sacrifice: Matthew adds the prophetic statement of Hosea 6:6 to the Marcan account (see also Matthew 12:7). If mercy is superior to the temple sacrifices, how much more to the laws of ritual impurity.
11  Fasting is a sign of mourning and would be as inappropriate at this time of joy, when Jesus is proclaiming the kingdom, as it would be at a marriage feast. Yet the saying looks forward to the time when Jesus will no longer be with the disciples visibly, the time of Matthew's church. Then they will fast: see Didache 8:1.
12 [16-17] Each of these parables speaks of the unsuitability of attempting to combine the old and the new. Jesus' teaching is not a patching up of Judaism, nor can the gospel be contained within the limits of Mosaic law.
13 [18-34] In this third group of miracles, the first (Matthew 9:18-26) is clearly dependent on Mark (Mark 5:21-43). Though it tells of two miracles, the cure of the woman had already been included within the story of the raising of the official's daughter, so that the two were probably regarded as a single unit. The other miracles seem to have been derived from Mark and Q respectively, though there Matthew's own editing is much more evident.
14  Official: literally, ＂ruler.＂ Mark calls him ＂one of the synagogue officials＂ (Mark 5:22). My daughter has just died: Matthew heightens the Marcan ＂my daughter is at the point of death＂ (Mark 5:23).
16  Sleeping: sleep is a biblical metaphor for death (see Psalm 87:6 LXX; Daniel 12:2; 1 Thes 5:10). Jesus' statement is not a denial of the child's real death, but an assurance that she will be roused from her sleep of death.
17 [27-31] This story was probably composed by Matthew out of Mark's story of the healing of a blind man named Bartimaeus (Mark 10:46-52). Mark places the event late in Jesus' ministry, just before his entrance into Jerusalem, and Matthew has followed his Marcan source at that point in his gospel also (see Matthew 20:29-34). In each of the Matthean stories the single blind man of Mark becomes two. The reason why Matthew would have given a double version of the Marcan story and placed the earlier one here may be that he wished to add a story of Jesus' curing the blind at this point in order to prepare for Jesus' answer to the emissaries of the Baptist (Matthew 11:4-6) in which Jesus, recounting his works, begins with his giving sight to the blind.
18  Son of David: this messianic title is connected once with the healing power of Jesus in Mark (Mark 10:47-48) and Luke (Luke 18:38-39) but more frequently in Matthew (see also Matthew 12:23; 15:22; 20:30-31).
19 [32-34] The source of this story seems to be Q (see Luke 11:14-15). As in the preceding healing of the blind, Matthew has two versions of this healing, the later in Matthew 12:22-24 and the earlier here.
20  This spiteful accusation foreshadows the growing opposition to Jesus in Matthew 11; 12.
23 [37-38] This Q saying (see Luke 10:2) is only imperfectly related to this context. It presupposes that only , , God (the master of the harvest) can take the initiative in sending out preachers of the gospel, whereas in Matthew's sett, ing it leads into Matthew 10 where Jesus does so.
5 Jesus sent out these twelve 4 after instructing them thus, ＂Do not go into pagan territory or enter a Samaritan town.
8 5 Cure the sick, raise the dead, cleanse lepers, drive out demons. Without cost you have received; without cost you are to give.
14 7 Whoever will not receive you or listen to your words--go outside that house or town and shake the dust from your feet.
17 8 But beware of people, for they will hand you over to courts and scourge you in their synagogues,
21 9 Brother will hand over brother to death, and the father his child; children will rise up against parents and have them put to death.
22 You will be hated by all because of my name, but whoever endures to the end 10 will be saved.
23 When they persecute you in one town, flee to another. Amen, I say to you, you will not finish the towns of
25 It is enough for the disciple that he become like his teacher, for the slave that he become like his master. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul, 12 how much more those of his household!
26 ＂Therefore do not be afraid of them. Nothing is concealed that will not be revealed, nor secret that will not be known. 13
32 14 Everyone who acknowledges me before others I will acknowledge before my heavenly Father.
39 16 Whoever finds his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life for my sake will find it.
40 ＂Whoever receives you receives me, 17 and whoever receives me receives the one who sent me.
41 18 Whoever receives a prophet because he is a prophet will receive a prophet's reward, and whoever receives a righteous man because he is righteous will receive a righteous man's reward.
1 [10:1-11:1] After an introductory narrative (Matthew 10:1-4), the second of the discourses of the gospel. It deals with the mission now to be undertaken by the disciples (Matthew 10:5-15), but the perspective broadens and includes the missionary activity of the church between the time of the resurrection and the parousia. 2 His twelve disciples: although, unlike Mark (Mark 3:13-14) and Luke (Luke 6:12-16), Matthew has no story of Jesus' choosing the Twelve, he assumes that the group is known to the reader. The earliest New Testament text to speak of it is 1 Cor 15:5. The number probably is meant to recall the twelve tribes of
3 [2-4] Here, for the only time in Matthew, the Twelve are designated apostles. The word ＂apostle＂ means ＂one who is sent,＂ and therefore fits the situation here described. In the Pauline letters, the place where the term occurs most frequently in the New Testament, it means primarily one who has seen the risen Lord and has been commissioned to proclaim the resurrection. With slight variants in Luke and Acts, the names of those who belong to this group are the same in the four lists given in the New Testament (see the note on Matthew 9:9). Cananean: this represents an Aramaic word meaning ＂zealot.＂ The meaning of that designation is unclear (see the note on Luke 6:15).
4 [5-6] Like Jesus (Matthew 15:24), the Twelve are sent only to
5 [8-11] The Twelve have received their own call and mission through God's gift, and the benefits they confer are likewise to be given freely. They are not to take with them money, provisions, or unnecessary clothing; their lodging and food will be provided by those who receive them.
6  The greeting of peace is conceived of not merely as a salutation but as an effective word. If it finds no worthy recipient, it will return to the speaker.
7  Shake the dust from your feet: this gesture indicates a complete disassociation from such unbelievers.
8  The persecutions attendant upon the post-resurrection mission now begin to be spoken of. Here Matthew brings into the discourse sayings found in Mark 13 which deals with events preceding the parousia.
10  To the end: the original meaning was probably ＂until the parousia.＂ But it is not likely that Matthew expected no missionary disciples to suffer death before then, since he envisages the martyrdom of other Christians (Matthew 10:21). For him, the end is probably that of the individual's life (see Matthew 10:28).
11  Before the Son of Man comes: since the coming of the Son of Man at the end of the age had not taken place when this gospel was written, much less during the mission of the Twelve during Jesus' ministry, Matthew cannot have meant the coming to refer to the parousia. It is difficult to know what he understood it to be: perhaps the ＂proleptic parousia＂ of Matthew 28:16-20, or the destruction of the temple in A.D. 70, viewed as a coming of Jesus in judgment on unbelieving Israel.
12  Beelzebul: see Matthew 9:34 for the charge linking Jesus with ＂the prince of demons,＂ who is named Beelzebul in Matthew 12:24. The meaning of the name is uncertain; possibly, ＂lord of the house.＂
13  The concealed and secret coming of the kingdom is to be proclaimed by them, and no fear must be allowed to deter them from that proclamation.
14 [32-33] In the Q parallel (Luke 12:8-9), the Son of Man will acknowledge those who have acknowledged Jesus, and those who deny him will be denied (by the Son of Man) before the angels of God at the judgment. Here Jesus and the Son of Man are identified, and the acknowledgment or denial will be before his heavenly Father.
15  The first mention of the cross in Matthew, explicitly that of the disciple, but implicitly that of Jesus (and follow after me). Crucifixion was a form of capital punishment used by the Romans for offenders who were not Roman citizens.
16  One who denies Jesus in order to save one's earthly life will be condemned to everlasting destruction; loss of earthly life for Jesus' sake will be rewarded by everlasting life in the kingdom.
17 [40-42] All who receive the disciples of Jesus receive him, and God who sent him, and will be rewarded accordingly.
18  A prophet: one who speaks in the name of God; here, the Christian prophets who proclaim the gospel. Righteous man: since righteousness is demanded of all the disciples, it is difficult to take the righteous man of this verse and one of these little ones (Matthew 10:42) as indicating different groups within the followers of Jesus. Probably all three designations are used here of Christian missionaries as such.
3 4 with this question,＂Are you the one who is to come, or should we look for another?＂
5 5 the blind regain their sight, the lame walk, lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the poor have the good news proclaimed to them.
9 Then why did you go out? To see a prophet? 7 Yes, I tell you, and more than a prophet.
11 Amen, I say to you, among those born of women there has been none greater than John the Baptist; yet the least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. 8
12 From the days of John the Baptist until now, the kingdom of heaven suffers violence, 9 and the violent are taking it by force.
13 All the prophets and the law 10 prophesied up to the time of John.
17 'We played the flute for you, but you did not dance, we sang a dirge but you did not mourn.'
21 ＂Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you,
23 And as for you, Capernaum: ‘Will you be exalted to heaven? You will go down to the netherworld.' 13 For if the mighty deeds done in your midst had been done in
25 At that time Jesus said in reply, 14＂I give praise to you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, for although you have hidden these things from the wise and the learned you have revealed them to the childlike.
29 17 Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am meek and humble of heart; and you will find rest for your selves.
1  The closing formula of the discourse refers back to the original addressees, the Twelve.
2 [11:2-12:50] The narrative section of the third book deals with the growing opposition to Jesus. It is largely devoted to disputes and attacks relating to faith and discipleship and thus contains much sayings-material, drawn in large part from Q.
4  The question probably expresses a doubt of the Baptist that Jesus is the one who is to come (cf Malachi 3:1) because his mission has not been one of fiery judgment as John had expected (Matthew 3:2).
5 [5-6] Jesus' response is taken from passages of Isaiah (Isaiah 26:19; 29:18-19; 35:5-6; 61:1) that picture the time of salvation as marked by deeds such as those that Jesus is doing. The beatitude is a warning to the Baptist not to disbelieve because his expectations have not been met.
6 [7-19] Jesus' rebuke of John is counterbalanced by a reminder of the greatness of the Baptist's function (Matthew 11:7-15) that is followed by a complaint about those who have heeded neither John nor Jesus (Matthew 11:16-19).
7 [9-10] In common Jewish belief there had been no prophecy in
8  John's preeminent greatness lies in his function of announcing the imminence of the kingdom (Matthew 3:1). But to be in the kingdom is so great a privilege that the least who has it is greater than the Baptist.
9  The meaning of this difficult saying is probably that the opponents of Jesus are trying to prevent people from accepting the kingdom and to snatch it away from those who have received it.
10  All the prophets and the law: Matthew inverts the usual order,＂law and prophets,＂ and says that both have prophesied. This emphasis on the prophetic character of the law points to its fulfillment in the teaching of Jesus and to the transitory nature of some of its commandments (see the note on Matthew 5:17-20).
11 [16-19] See Luke 7:31-35. The meaning of the parable (Matthew 11:16-17) and its explanation (Matthew 11:18-19b) is much disputed. A plausible view is that the children of the parable are two groups, one of which proposes different entertainments to the other that will not agree with either proposal. The first represents John, Jesus, and their disciples; the second those who reject John for his asceticism and Jesus for his table association with those despised by the religiously observant. Matthew 11:19c (her works) forms an inclusion with Matthew 11:2 (＂the works of the Messiah＂). The original form of the saying is better preserved in Luke 7:35＂. . . wisdom is vindicated by all her children.＂ There John and Jesus are the children of Wisdom; here the works of Jesus the Messiah are those of divine Wisdom, of which he is the embodiment. Some important textual witnesses, however, have essentially the same reading as in Luke.
14 [25-27] This Q saying, identical with Luke 10:21-22 except for minor variations, introduces a joyous note into this section, so dominated by the theme of unbelief. While the wise and the learned, the scribes and Pharisees, have rejected Jesus' preaching and the significance of his mighty deeds, the childlike have accepted them. Acceptance depends upon the Father's revelation, but this is granted to those who are open to receive it and refused to the arrogant. Jesus can speak of all mysteries because he is the Son and there is perfect reciprocity of knowledge between him and the Father; what has been handed over to him is revealed only to those whom he wishes.
17  In place of the yoke of the law, complicated by scribal interpretation, Jesus invites the burdened to take the yoke of obedience to his word, under which they will find rest; cf Jeremiah 6:16.
10 The disciples approached him and said, ＂Why do you speak to them in parables?＂
11 4 He said to them in reply, ＂Because knowledge of the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven has been granted to you, but to them it has not been granted.
12 To anyone who has, more will be given 5 and he will grow rich; from anyone who has not, even what he has will be taken away.
13 6 This is why I speak to them in parables, because‘they look but do not see and hear but do not listen or understand.'
15 Gross is the heart of this people, they will hardly hear with their ears, they have closed their eyes, lest they see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and be converted, and I heal them.'
16 7 ＂But blessed are your eyes, because they see, and your ears, because they hear.