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天主的奥秘之城(胡文浩 紫微雷塔小德兰译 杨开勇校阅)列表
·目录
·001天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·002天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·003天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·004天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·005天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·006天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·007天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第2
·008天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第3
·作者:艾吉达的耶稣玛利亚
·009天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第4
·010天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第5
·011天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第6
·012天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第7
·013天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第8
·014天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第9
·015天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·016天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·017天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·018天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·019天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·020天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·021天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·022天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·023天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·024天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第1
·025天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第2
·026天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第2
·027天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第2
·028天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第2
·029天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第2
·030天主的奥秘之城第一册第1卷第2
·031天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第1
·032天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第2
·033天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第3
·034天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第4
·035天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第5
·036天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第6
·037天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第7
·038天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第8
·039天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第9
·040天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第1
·041天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第1
·042天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第1
·042天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第1
·043天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第1
·044天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第1
·045天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第1
·046天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第1
·047天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第1
·048天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第1
·049天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第2
·050天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第2
·051天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第2
·052天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第2
·053天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第2
·天主的奥秘之城第二册 见证
·天主的奥秘之城第二册 许可
·天主的奥秘之城第二册 引言
·001天主的奥秘之城第二册第1卷第1
「我的民因无知识而灭亡。你弃掉知识,我也必弃掉你,使你不再给我作祭司。」
039天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第9章 天上至圣的元后所操练的智德
039天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第9章 天上至圣的元后所操练的智德
浏览次数:329 更新时间:2021-12-31
 
 

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CHAPTER IX.

OF THE VIRTUE OF PRUDENCE AS PRACTICED BY THE MOST HOLY QUEEN OF HEAVEN.

第九章

天上至圣的元后所操练的智德

533. As the acts of the understanding go before the acts of the will and direct them on the way, the virtues pertaining to the exercise of the understanding also precede those of the will. Although the proper sphere of the intellect is to recognize the truth and comprehend it, thereby perhaps causing a doubt whether it can be classed as a virtue (for virtue of its very nature consists in tending toward and practicing the good) ; yet it is certain that there are also intellectual virtues, the practice of which is praiseworthy in proportion as they conform to reason and truth ; for these are the proper good of the intellect.

533. 当理智的行为先于意志的行为并引导意志的行为时,操练与理智活动有关的美德也先于操练意志的美德。虽然理智的适当范围是认识和理解真理,因此也许会引起怀疑,它是否可以被归类为一种美德(因为美德的本质在于趋向和实践善); 然而,可以肯定的是,也有理智的美德,这种美德的实践是值得称赞的,因为它们符合理性和真理; 因为这些是理智的正当利益。  

When therefore it proposes truth to the will and instructs the will to follow its guidance, then this act of the intellect is theologically good, when matters of faith are concerned, and morally good when, as for instance in the exercise of prudence, the operations of the appetites are regulated. On this account the virtue of prudence comes first as pertaining to the proper use of the understanding.

因此,当理智向意志提出真理,并指示意志遵循它的指导时,那么当涉及到信仰的问题时,理智的这种行为在神学上是好的,它在道德上也是好的,例如在谨慎美德的操练中,欲望的运行受到约束。因此,德首先是正确运用理智 

It is as it were the root of the other cardinal and moral virtues; for these others are praiseworthy when accompanied by prudence, and faulty and reprehensible when devoid of it.

智德仿佛是其它根本美德和道德美德的根源;因为这些其它美德在伴随有谨慎的情况下是值得称赞的,而在缺乏智德的情况下则是错误和应受谴责的。

534. The sovereign Queen Mary possessed this virtue of prudence in supreme excellence and in proportion to the height of her other virtues already described and yet to be described. On account of her wonderful prudence the Church calls her the “Virgin most prudent.”

534. 至尊元后玛利亚拥有这种卓越至上的智德,与她已经描述过和有待描述的其它圣德的高度成正比。由于她绝妙的智德,教会称她为“极智贞女”。

As this virtue governs all the others and as this whole history treats of the exercise of these virtues in the most holy Mary, all of what little I can say and manifest of this sea of prudence will be nothing else than a continual implied reference to her prudence, and all her works will show the splendor of this virtue.

正如这一圣德支配着所有其它圣德,就像这整个历史所描述的那样,在至圣的玛利亚身上,这些美德的运用也是如此,在这片智德之海中,我所能说的和表明出来的一切都无非是对她的智德的不断暗指和提及,而她的所有作为都将展示出这种圣德的光辉。

Therefore I will speak here more in general of the prudence of the sovereign Queen, exhibiting the different parts and qualities of prudence as taught us by teachers and saints, in order that we may thereby obtain a better understanding of it in her regard.

因此,我将在这里更进一步地谈论至尊元后的智德,展示圣师和圣人所教给我们的智德的不同部分和品质,以便我们可以借此更好地了解她的智德。

535. Of the three kinds of prudence called political, purgative and that of a soul already purified or perfect, none was wanting in our Queen and they were hers in the highest degree. For, although all her faculties were most pure and perfect, or in other words, had no need of being purified from any faultiness or opposition to virtue, yet they could be improved as regards the natural knowledge and in as far as the progress from goodness and holiness to greatest goodness and holiness was concerned.

535. 在称为政治的、炼净的、和已经净化已经成全的灵魂的三种智德中,我们的元后没有缺乏任何一种,并且三种智德在她内达到了最高程度。因为,虽然她的所有才能都是最纯洁和成全的,或者换句话说,不需要从任何缺点或相反美德的行为中净化,然而,就自然知识而言,从良善和圣洁到至善和至洁的进展而言,这些智德是可以得到改进的。

(译注:圣母和政治有什么关系?我本来也不明白,后来读到后(546-548)才知道在信友中因为有不同的民族及不同的国家,因此天主让圣母在这方面教导信友要如何的行为,在他们各自的民族及国家里面组织并建立天主的选民在世上为准备天主的国度,这是因为我们如今还活在世间,因此就还需要有政治之智慧来处理众人的事情。众人之事就是政治。]

This must be understood of course only of her own works, as far as they are compared with each other, and not in as far as they are brought into comparison with the works of others. For in comparison with the works of other saints there was no great or small in this City of God, whose foundations are above the holy mountains.

当然,这一点只能从至尊元后玛利亚自己的工程中理解,就三种智德彼此之间的比较而言,而不是就它们与他人的工程进行比较而言。因为这座根基在圣山上,即在天主之城,与其他圣徒的工程相比,没有大小之分。

But in her own works, since they grew in charity and grace from the first moment of her Conception, some of them, though in themselves most perfect and superior to all the works of the saints, were less perfect in comparison with other acts of a later period in her life.

但在她自己的工程中,由于三种智德从她受孕的第一刻起就在仁爱和恩宠中成长,其中一些虽然本身最成全,也比圣徒的所有工程更优越,但与在她生命的后期的其它工程相比,就稍逊一筹了。

536. Political prudence in general is that which ponders and weighs all that is to be done and reduces it to the dictates of reason, eschewing all that is not just and good. The purgative or purifying prudence is that which disposes and selects all things in such a way as to rectify the heart by divine contemplation toward all celestial things.

536. 一般而言,“政治的智德”是考虑和权衡所有要做的事情并将其归结为理性的指示,避免一切不公正和不美好的事情。“炼净或净化的智德”是以这种方式来处置和选择一切事物,以便通过对所有天国的事物的神圣默观来纠正心灵。

(译者注:信友不喜欢谈政治,但“众人之事”就是“政治”。信友要在世间之事上扮演很重要的脚色,换言之,让不认识主的世人透过认识真理,用这种方式来让世人因此认识天主,信友若不在政治上面介入并阐明真理,撒旦就要全面得胜了。当人认识了真理,人就知道如何洽当的行为。)

The prudence of the purified or perfect soul is that which directs and centres all the affections upon the highest Good, as if no other object existed. All these kinds of prudence existed in most holy Mary in order that She might distinguish and know without fail, direct and accomplish without remissness or tardiness, what ever is most perfect and excellent in the fulfillment of her works. Never did the judgment of this sovereign Lady in the whole range of her activity, dictate or attach itself to anything which was not the best and most proper.

 “已经净化或已经成全灵魂的智德”是将所有情感引导和集中到至善,就好像没有其它对象存在一样。至圣玛利亚的所有这三种智德都存在,以便她能够分辨和明白无误,直达目标和完成,没有疏忽或拖延,在完成她的工程中无论什么都是最成全和最优秀的。这位至尊的圣母在她的整个活动范围内的判断,从来没有听任或依附于任何不是最好和最合适的事情。

No one ever equaled Her in disposing and directing all visible or worldly matters so as to make them useful for divine contemplation. Therefore having perceived them so intimately and in so many different lights of knowledge,She was united in such a manner to the highest Good by divine love that no preoccupation or hindrance ever prevented Her from resting completely in the centre of her love.

在处理和指导所有可见的或世俗的事物方面,以使其对神圣的默观有用时,没有人能与她相比。因此,在如此多不同的知识之光中,如此亲密地感知观察到它们之后,她以这种方式在天主的爱中与至高的良善结合在一起,没有任何成见或障碍能阻止她完全安息在她爱的中心。

537. It is manifest also that all the component parts of prudence existed in their entirety in our Queen. The first is memory, which retains in the mind things already experienced in the past. From past experiences are drawn many rules for proceeding and acting in the present and in the future ; because prudence concerns itself with particular actions, and as there cannot be a general rule for all of them, it is necessary to draw special rules from many past examples and experiences stored up in the memory.

537. 同样明显的是,智德的所有组成部分都完整地存在于我们的女王身上。第一个组成部分是记忆,它将过去已经经历过的事情保存在头脑中。从过去的经验中得出了许多在现在和将来进行和行动的规则; 因为智德关注的是特定的行为,不可能对所有的行为都有一个普遍的规则,所以有必要从记忆中储存的许多过去的例子和经验中得出特殊的规则。  

Our Sovereign was so endowed with it that She never experienced the natural defect of forgetfulness; for that which once She had understood and learnt, was ever present and immovable in her memory. In regard to this blessing most pure Mary transcended the whole human and even the angelic order, because God made Her a summary of all that was most perfect in both of them.

我们的元后被很好的赋予了记忆的恩惠,以致她从未经历过健忘这种天生的缺陷;因为一旦她理解和学习了,就永远存在于她的记忆中。关于这一祝福,至洁的玛利亚超越了整个人类甚至天使,因为天主使她在智德和记忆这两个品德上成就了最完美的总结。

(译者注:是这样的,圣母当然有一切所有美德,且是最完美的那一位,但是在这里是在介绍世人认识并知道关于智德及记忆这两个品德,以及这两品德间的关系,所以才这样写。并未否定圣母没有其它美德。)

She contained in Herself all the essential goodness of the human nature and all that was most perfect and the farthest removed from blemish in the accidental qualities of man; and many of the natural and many of the supernatural gifts of the angelic nature She possessed by special privilege and in a higher degree than the angels themselves. One of these gifts was a fixed and constant memory, incapable of forgetting what She had learnt. In regard to her memory She excelled the angels in the same proportion as She excelled them in the virtue of prudence.

元后在她自己中包含了人性的所有本质善良,以及人类附属品质中最完美、最远离瑕疵的一切;以及天使本性的许多自然和许多超自然的恩赐,她都以特殊的特权和比天使本身更高的程度拥有。这些恩赐之一是固定不变的记忆,无法忘记她所学到的东西。就她的记忆力而言,她胜过天使,正如她在谨慎的圣德上胜过天使一样。

538. Only in one respect this blessing was limited in a mysterious manner by the humble purity of the most holy Mary : if the images of all things were to be fixed in the memory, it was unavoidable, that also much that springs from the vileness and sinfulness of creatures, should fill its sacred precincts.

538.只有在一个方面,这种祝福是有限的,因它以一种神秘的方式受到至圣玛利亚谦卑纯洁的限制:如果所有事物的形象都被固定在记忆中,那么不可避免的,从受造物中产生的卑鄙和罪恶,也会充满它的神圣领域。

Therefore the most humble and pure Princess besought the Lord that the full gift of memory should not extend itself toward the preservation of these images, but only in so far as was necessary for the exercise of fraternal charity towards her neighbor and for the practice of other virtues. The Most High granted this petition more in testimony of her most humble purity than on account of any danger, to which these images could expose Her; for the sun is not harmed by the impurities which it may shine upon, nor are the angels disturbed by our vileness, since to the pure all things are pure (Tit. 1, 15).

因此,这位最谦卑和最纯洁的公主恳求上主,不要让她的记忆的全部延伸到保存这些图像上,而仅限于对她的近人行使兄弟般的爱德和操练其它的圣德所必需的范围内。至高者应允这一请求,与其说是因为有什么危险,不如说是为了证明她是最谦卑的纯洁;正如太阳不会被它所照射的地面上的污秽和杂质而玷污,天使也不会被我们的邪恶所扰乱,因为对纯洁的人来说,一切都是纯洁的(弟铎书1:15)。

[经文〈弟铎书1:15〉:为洁净人一切都是洁净的。]

But in this regard the Lord of the angels wished to privilege his Mother more than them; He wished to tolerate in her memory only those images which pertain to the highest sanctity, honesty, cleanliness and the most amiable purity, and what was most pleasing to Himself. Thus her most holy soul, in regard to these things, was without blemish, and her memory was adorned with the representations of all that is most pure and desirable.

但是在这方面,天使之主希望给予圣子的母亲比他们更多的特权。圣子希望在祂母亲的记忆中只容忍那些与至高的圣洁、诚实、洁净、和最和蔼可亲的纯洁有关的形象,以及最令圣子自己满意的形象。因此,祂母亲至圣的灵魂在这些事物上是无瑕的,祂母亲的记忆中装饰着一切最纯洁、最令人向往的美好的东西。

539. Another component part of the virtue of prudence is the intelligence which principally concerns itself with what is to be done in the present moment. It is a correct and profound understanding of the reasons and the principles, according to which virtuous actions are to be performed. It reduces this understanding into action, not only in so far as to give a comprehensive knowledge of the excellence of virtue in general, but also in so far as to direct our activity in the proper channel for performing there and then each particular work in a virtuous and perfect manner.

539. 智德的另一个组成部分是智慧,它主要关注当下要做什么。正确而深刻地理解了行善的缘由和道理。智慧将这种理解转化为行动,不仅是为了全面了解一般美德的卓越性,而且是为了指导我们的活动在适当的渠道中,以善良而完美的方式履行一个特定的工作。

Thus when I have a deep understanding of the precept: “Do nothing unto others what thou wishest not to be done unto thyself,” I will at once know that I shall not do this or that particular injury, because it would seem a wrong if done to me or some one else. This kind of intelligence most holy Mary possessed in so much the higher degree than all the rest of creatures, as She exceeded them in knowledge of the moral virtues, in profound penetration regarding infallible rectitude, and in participation of the divine righteousness.

因此,当我深刻理解了“己所不欲,勿施于人”的诫命时,我会立即知道我不会做这个或那个,特别是会伤害别人的事,因为如果对我或其他人这样做是错误的。至圣玛利亚所拥有的这种智慧,比其他所有受造物都要高得多,因为她对道德美德的认知、对正直的深刻洞察力、以及对神圣正义的参与方面都超过了他们。

In the light of this intelligence, derived from the splendors of the Divinity itself, there could be no deceit, no ignorance, no doubt, no mere opinions, as is the case with other creatures. For She understood and penetrated all the truths, both in their general and their particular bearings, and especially as far as their practical application in the matter of virtue is concerned, seeing them as they are in themselves. Thus it must be held that this part of prudence was hers in an unequalled fullness and plenitude.

在这种源自天主性本身智慧的光芒之下,就不会有欺骗、无知、怀疑、粗陋的看法,就像其他受造物的情况一样。 因为她理解并洞悉了所有真理,无论是在它们的普遍意义还是特殊意义,尤其是就它们在美德问题上的实际应用,看清它们的本来面目。因此,我们必须认为,这部分智德是她的无与伦比的充实和丰富。

[在智慧篇中说道:智慧就是天主,为此在这里强调,在智慧的光芒照射之下,万物要逞现出原形,无所遁形]

540. The third component part of prudence is called providence. It is the most important of all the parts of prudence, for in human actions it is most important that the present be well ordered toward the future, so that all things may be rightly adjusted. This is effected by providence.

540. 智德的第三个组成部分称为远见。它是智德的所有部分中最重要的部分,因为在人类行为中,最重要的是将现在安排妥当,面向未来,以便正确调整一切。而这是受远见影响的。

Our Lady and Queen practiced this part of prudence in a degree even more excellent (if possible) than all the other parts of prudence; for besides the vivid memory of the past and the profound understanding of things present, She had an unerring knowledge and understanding of things to come, to which her providence extended itself.

我们的圣母和元后操练这部分智德的程度甚至比智德其它所有部分都要出色(如果可能的话);因为除了对过去的生动记忆和对现在事物的深刻理解外,她对未来的事物有着准确的认识和理解,这是远见延伸出来的。

With this knowledge and infused science She so arranged all happenings that they were a preparation for the future and nothing could come upon Her unawares or by surprise. All things were by Her foreseen, considered and weighed beforehand in the sanctuary of her mind, illumined by infused light. Thus without a shade of doubt or uncertainty, such as is the lot of other men, She awaited the events before their arrival with unerring certitude, so that for all things She found a place, a time and opportune circumstances directing them all toward the Good.

凭借这些认知和注入的知识,她安排了所有发生的事情,并为未来做准备,没有任何事情会在她不知情或意外的情况下发生。一切事物都被她预见、考虑和衡量,并在她心灵的圣所中被注入的光照亮。因此,没有一丝怀疑或不确定性,不像其他人那样,她以准确无误的确信在事情到来之前等待事件发生,因此对于所有事情,她找到了一个地点、时间和合适的环境,引导事件走向善。

541. These three parts of prudence comprehend the activity of the intellect in the practice of this virtue, for they secure the good order of our actions in regard to past, the present and the future. However, when we consider this virtue under another aspect, namely in so far as it perceives the proper means for the practice of virtue and directs the will to employ them rightly, the teachers and philosophers mention five other points or different kind of activities of prudence, namely ; docility, reasonableness, cleverness, circumspection and caution.

541. 智德的这三个部分理解了在实践这种美德中的知性的活动,因为它们确保我们在过去、现在和未来的行为的良好秩序。然而,当我们从另一个方面考虑这种美德时,也就是说,当它认识到实行美德的适当手段,并指导意志正确地运用这些手段时,圣师和哲学家提到了另外五点或不同类型的智德活动,即温顺、理性、聪明、慎重和小心。

Docility is the good judgment and readiness of the creature to be taught by others better informed than itself, and a disposition not inflated by its own knowledge, and not resting unduly on its own insight and wisdom. Reason ableness, or the power of drawing correct inferences, consists in reasoning without error from generally understood principles to the particular course of action in each single case. Cleverness is a diligent attention and practical application of our activity to that which happens, enabling us to judge rightly and follow the best course of action, just as docility is attention to the teachings of others.

“温顺”是一种良好的判断力,是一种不因其自身的知识而自我膨胀的性格,也不会过度依赖于其自身的洞察力和智慧。“推理能力,或作出正确推理的能力”,在于从普遍理解的原则到每一个单独案例中的特定行动过程进行无错误的推理。“聪明”是对发生的事情的勤勉关注和实际应用,使我们能够正确判断并遵循最佳行动方案,就像温顺是关注他人的教导一样。

Circumspection is a just consideration of the circumstances connected with each good work; for it is not sufficient that the end of our actions be good, but it is necessary to consider the opportuneness of the circumstances. Cautiousness is a discreet attention to the dangers or impediments, so that when they occur under cover of virtue or unexpectedly, we may not be found rash or unprepared.

“慎重”是对每项善举相关环境的恰当考虑;因为我们的行为结果好,是不够的,但需要考虑情况的时机。“小心”是对危险或障碍的审慎的关注,以便当它们在涉及美德或意外发生时,我们不会被发现鲁莽或措手不及。

542. All these complements of prudence existed in the Queen of heaven without any faultiness and in their fullest perfection. Docility belonged to Mary as the legitimate daughter of her incomparable humility; for though She had received the plenitude of science from the moment of her Immaculate Conception, and though She was the teacher and the mother of true wisdom, She nevertheless allowed Herself to be taught by her elders, by her equals and by those below Her, esteeming Herself as lower than all of them and seeking to be a disciple of those who in comparison to Her were most ignorant.

542. 所有这些智德的补充都存在于元后身上,没有任何缺陷,而且是最成全的。温顺属于玛利亚,她是无比谦逊的真正的女儿;因为虽然她从无玷始胎的那一刻起就接受了丰富的知识,虽然她是真正智慧的导师和母亲,但她仍然允许自己接受长辈、同辈和比她低的人的教导,把自己看的比他们都低,想要做那些跟她比起来最无知的人的弟子。

This docility She exhibited during all her life like a most simple dove, disguising her wisdom with a greater prudence than that of the serpent (Matth. 10, 16). As a Child She accepted instruction from her parents, from her teacher in the temple, from her companions, and later on from her spouse saint Joseph, from the Apostles ; from all creatures She wished to learn, being a prodigy of humility, as I have said in another place (No. 406, 472).

她一生都表现出这种温顺,就像一只最单纯的鸽子,用比蛇更谨慎的方式来掩饰她的智慧(玛窦福音10:16)。作为一个孩子,她接受了父母、圣殿导师、同伴的教导,后来又接受了她的净配圣若瑟和宗徒们的教导;她愿意从所有的受造物中学习,作为一个谦逊的奇迹,正如我在另一个地方所说的(第 406、472节)。

[经文〈玛窦福音10:16〉:看,我派遣你们好像羊进入狼群中,所以你们要机警如同蛇,纯朴如同鸽子。]

543. The reasonableness or prudent judgment of most holy Mary can be easily inferred from what saint Luke says of Her: that She kept and pondered in her heart the mysterious events in the life of her most holy Son. This pondering was the reasoning which She employed, comparing cause with cause in the order in which they occurred and happened, and by this comparison She formed for Herself most prudent counsels, which enabled Her to act with the perfection peculiar to Her.

543. 至圣玛利亚的“理性或审慎”判断可以从圣史路加对她的评价中轻易推断出来:她将至圣圣子生命中的奥秘事件默存于心,并深思熟虑。这种思考是她使用的推理,按照它们发生的原因与发生原因的顺序进行比较,通过这种比较,她为自己制定了最谨慎的方案,这使她能够以她特有的完美行事。

Although She very often understood many things without the discourse of reasoning by a simple intuition and intelligence which exceeded all human understanding; yet, as far as the actual exercise of the virtues was concerned, She applied this process of reasoning from the abstract principles of virtue to her own practice of them.

虽然至圣玛利亚经常通过超越人类理解的简单直觉和智慧,在没有推理的情况下理解很多事情;然而,就圣德的实际操练而言,她将这种从圣德的抽象原则进行推理的过程应用到她自己的实践中。

544. In regard to cleverness and diligent application of the rules of prudence the sovereign Lady also was highly privileged ; for She was not weighed down by the heavy load of human passion and corruption, and thus She felt not our languors and tardiness in her faculties,but She was always alert, ready and very skillful in noticing and attending to all that was necessary to come to a correct and wholesome conclusion in the performance of virtuous actions, and in striking, readily and quickly, the happy medium of virtue in her doings.

544. 关于智德规则的“聪明和勤奋”的应用,至尊圣母也享有很高的特权;因为她没有被人类的欲望和腐败的沉重负担压倒,因此在她的能力中也不会感到我们有的疲倦和迟缓,但她总是警觉、有备、非常熟练的注意到一切必要的事,以便在展示圣德的行为中得到正确和健康的结论,并且在她的行为中,快捷而迅速地表现出美德的中庸之道。

Equally admirable was most holy Mary in her circumspection; for all her works were so accomplished that no point of perfection was missing, and all of them stand forth in the highest perfection possible. And as the greater part of her actions were works of charity towards the neighbor, and all of them most opportune; therefore in all her teaching, admonishing, consoling, beseeching and correcting of her neighbor, the efficacious sweetness of her reasonable and pleasing manners met with its full success.

同样令人钦佩的是至圣玛利亚的“慎重”。因为她的所有工作都完成得完美无缺,而且所有工作都以最高的完美表现出来。由于她的大部分行为都是对近人的爱德行为,而且所有这些行为都是最合适的;因此,在她对近人的所有教导、告诫、安慰、恳求和纠正中,她那通情达理、令人愉快的举止所表现出的怡人的甜美,取得了圆满的成功。  

545. The last complement of prudence, called cautiousness, which meets and evades the impediments of virtue, was necessarily also possessed by the Queen of angels in a greater perfection than by these spirits ; for her exalted wisdom and the love which accompanied it, incited Her to such caution and foresight, that no event which might be an impediment in the exercise of the most perfect virtue, found Her unprepared and unprovided with a counter remedy.

545. 智德的最后一种补充,称为“谨慎”,它满足和避免美德的障碍,天使的元后必定也比这些精神体更完美的拥有谨慎的美德;由于她崇高的智慧和与之相伴的爱心,激励她如此谨慎和深谋远虑,以致任何可能阻碍她行使最完美圣德的事情,都不会让她感到措手不及,无法提供补救措施。

And since the enemy, as will be described later on, not being able to find any hold in her passions, exerted himself so much in placing elaborate and unheard of obstacles in her way, the most prudent Virgin had occasion to practice this caution many times, thereby exciting the wonder of the Apostles.

由于敌人,正如后面将要描述的,无法控制她对这美德的渴慕,也不能极力在她的道路上,煞费苦心的和闻所未闻的设置障碍,极智贞女有机会多次操练这种谨慎,从而激发了宗徒们的惊奇。

On account of the cautious discretion of the most holy Mary the demon pursued Her with a terrified wrath and envy, burning with a desire to know by what power She foiled such powerful machinations and cunning snares as he devised in order to hinder or draw Her away. For in every instance he was vanquished and had to be witness of the most perfect exercise of all that is virtuous in all her under takings and works.

由于至圣玛利亚的小心谨慎,恶魔带着恐惧的愤怒和嫉妒追赶她,急切的想知道她用什么力量挫败了牠的网罗,那为了阻碍或拉走她而设计的如此强大的阴谋和狡猾的网罗。因为在每一件事上,恶魔都被击败了,他必须被迫见证至圣玛利亚在一切事业和工作中,最完美地操练了一切美德。  

546. After having mentioned and described the parts and complements of prudence, let us also examine the different species or kinds, into which it can be divided, according to the object or the ends to which it is applied.

546. 在介绍并解释了智德的三个组成部分和五点补充活动之后,让我们再看看不同的种类,根据它所适用的对象或目的,可以分为几类。

Prudence can be used either in our own actions and affairs, or for the affairs of others, and thus arise two kinds of prudence, directing the activity which concerns ourselves, and that which concerns our neighbors. That which governs one's own particular activity is called enarchicanarchic prudence, and in reference to the Queen of heaven, it is not necessary to say more in proof of her having exercised this kind of prudence, than what has already been said above about the manner in which She regulated her own life.

智德既可以用于我们自己的行为和事务,也可以用于他人的事务,从而产生两种智德,指导与我们有关的活动和指导与近人有关的活动。支配自己特定活动的称为超常的智德,至于元后,除了上面已经说过的,她是如何管理自己的生活之外,没有必要再多说以证明她已有此谨慎。

The prudence which regulates the government of others is called pollyarchic ; this is subdivided into four kinds, according to four different ways of governing others. The first kind is that which facilitates the government of countries by just and useful laws ; it is proper to kings, princes and monarchs and of all those whose authority is supreme.

规范去管理众人的智德被称为“多元治理”;根据四种不同的治理方式,又可细分为四种。第一种是“借着公正有用的法律促进国家政府;它适合国王、王子和君主以及所有拥有至高权威的人。

The second kind is called the political prudence, which has its name from the fact that it teaches the right government of cities or republics. The third is called economical prudence, which shows how to govern and manage domestic affairs of the family or particular homes. The fourth is military prudence, which is adapted to prosecution of wars and management of armies.

第二种叫做“政治谨慎”,它的名字来源于它教导城市或共和国的正确治理。第三种是“经济谨慎”,体现了如何治理和管理家庭或特定家庭的内部事务。第四种是“军事谨慎”,适应于战争的实施和军队的管理。

547. None of these different kinds of prudence was wanting in our great Queen. All were given to Her as habits in the instant of her Conception and of her sanctification so that no grace, no virtue, no perfection which might exalt and beautify Her above all creatures, might be wanting in Her. The Most High made Her an archive and depositary of all his gifts, an example to all the rest of creation thus giving an exhibition of his power and greatness, so that in the whole heavenly Jerusalem it might be known what He could and would do for a mere creature.

547. 在我们伟大的元后身上,所有这些谨慎她都不缺乏。在她受孕和成圣的那一刹那,所有的这一切谨慎都被赋予她并成为与之样伴的美德,这样她在恩宠、圣德和完美上,胜过所有受造物。至高者使元后成为诸恩宠的保管者、管理者、分发者,成为所有其他受造物的榜样,从而展示了天主的大能和伟大,这样,在整个天上的耶路撒冷,就可以知道天主赏给玛丽亚整个人类生命的满全

And in Mary these sublime habits of virtue did not lie idle, for all of them She exercised in the course of her life on many occasions as they offered themselves. As regards economical prudence it is well known how incomparable was the government of her domestic affairs, when living with her spouse Joseph and with her most holy Son ; for in his education and service She acted with such prudence as was befitting the most occult mystery which God entrusted to men, as I shall show in another place, according to my understanding and ability.

在玛利亚身上,这些崇高的圣德习惯并没有闲置,因为所有这些圣德,她都在她的一生中在许多场合中操练,就像这些圣德自然表现出来一样。至于经济上的谨慎,众所周知,当与她的净配若瑟和她至圣的儿子生活在一起时,她的家务管理是多么无与伦比;因为在天主的教育和服务中,她行事谨慎,以符合天主赋予人类的最神秘的奥秘,正如我将根据我的理解和能力在另一个地方展示的那样。

548. She exercised also the governing or monarchical prudence as the sole Empress of the Church, teaching, advising and directing the sacred Apostles in the primitive Church, thus helping to lay its foundation and to initiate the laws, rites and ceremonies most necessary and useful for its propagation and establishment.

548. 作为教会独一的元后,玛利亚也行使统治或君主的智德,教导、建议、和引领初始教会中的神圣宗徒,从而为帮助教会奠定基础,并开创最必要和最有用的法律、礼仪和仪式。

Though She obeyed the Apostles in particular matters, and consulted especially saint Peter as the vicar of Christ and the head of the Church, and saint John as her chaplain, yet they and all the Christians asked her advice and followed it in the general and particular matters relating to the government of the Church.

虽然她在特别的事上服从了宗徒,并特别咨询了作为基督的代表和教会领袖的圣伯多禄,以及作为她私人神师的圣若望,然而,所有宗徒和基督徒都征求她的意见,并在教会管理有关的一般和特殊事务上遵循她的建议。

She also taught the Christian kings and princes who approached Her for counsel ; for many of them sought to know Her after the Ascension of her most holy Son into heaven. Among them especially can be mentioned the three Kings of the East, when they  came to adore the Child. She explained and instructed them in all that they must do for their states, with such light and clearness that She was their star and guide on the way to eternity.

玛利亚还教导向她寻求建议的基督信徒的国王和王侯;因为在她至圣的儿子升天之后,他们中的许多人试图认识她。其中尤其值得一提的是东方三王,当他们开始崇拜圣婴耶稣时。玛利亚向他们解释并指导他们为他们的国家必须做的一切,她的指导是如此的光明和清晰,以至于玛利亚成为他们通往永恒之路的明星和向导。

They returned to their country enlightened, consoled and astonished at the wisdom, prudence and sweetness of the words which they had heard from the mouth of a tender Maiden. In witness of all he high praise which this Queen deserved in this regard, it is enough to hear her own words :”By me, kings reign, and law-givers decree just things, by me princes rule”(Prov. 8, 16).

他们回到自己的国家后,从一位温柔少女口中听到的智慧、谨慎和甜蜜的话语使他们受到了启迪、安慰和惊讶。为见证这位天后在这方面应得的所有高度赞扬,只要听听她自已的话就足够了:”藉着我,君王统治,元首秉公行义,藉着我,王侯治理邦土”(箴言 8:16)。

[经文〈箴 8:14–16〉:机谋才智,属我所有;聪明勇敢,亦属于我。藉着我,君王执政,元首秉公行义;藉着我,统治者统治,王侯治理邦土。]

549. Neither was the political prudence wanting in Her; for She taught the republics and nations, and the primitive Christians in particular, how  to proceed in public acts and government of their country, how they must obey kings and secular princes, their prelates and bishops, how they are to convoke councils, issue the definitions and decrees resolved upon. Even military prudence found a place in the sovereign Queen, for also in this direction She was consulted by some of the faithful, and She instructed and taught them what was required to carry on a just war with their enemies, so as to conduct them according to the justice and pleasure of the Lord.

549. 她身上也不缺少政治上的谨慎; 因为她教导那些共和国和民族,特别是初期教会的基督徒,他们如何必须服从国王和世俗王侯,他们的教长和主教,他们如何召集议会,发布已解决的规定和法令。甚至军事上的谨慎在至尊的元后身上也占有一席之地,因为在这个方向上,一些信徒也向她咨询过,她指示和教导他们与敌人进行正义战争所需的知识,以便根据天主的公义和喜悦指挥(带领)他们。

Here can also be mentioned the courage and prudence with which this powerful Lady vanquished the prince of darkness, teaching us thereby how we must battle with him; for She overcame him by an exalted wisdom and prudence, greater than that shown by David in his combat with the giant, or by Judith with Holofernes, or by Esther with Aman (I Kings, 17, 50, Judith 13, 10, Esth.7, 6).

这里还可以提到这位强有力的圣母战胜黑暗王子(撒殚)的勇气和智慧,从而教会了我们如何与撒殚战斗;因为她以一种崇高的智慧和谨慎战胜了撒殚,比大卫在与巨人的战斗中所表现出的,或友弟德与敖罗斐乃,或艾斯德尔与哈曼的战斗中所表现出的智慧和谨慎都更胜一筹(撒母耳纪上,17:50,友弟德传13:10,艾斯德尔传7:6)。

[经文〈撒母耳纪上,17:50〉:如此,达味用投石器和石头,得胜了那培肋舍特人,打中了他,将他杀死,虽然手无寸铁。经文〈友弟德传,13:10〉:使女把头放进食袋里。然后二人一起,照习惯出外祈祷去了。二人经过兵营,绕过山谷,爬上拜突里雅山,来到了自己的城门下。经文〈艾斯德尔传, 7:6〉:艾斯德尔答说:「这仇人和死敌,就是这败类哈曼。」哈曼立时在君王及王后前,惊惶万分。]

Even if all these kinds of prudence had not been needed for the actions mentioned, yet it was proper, that this Mother of wisdom, aside of their being befitting ornaments of her most holy soul, should possess them on account of her being the Mediatrix and sole Advocate of this world. For as She was to procure by her intercession all the blessings, which God would bestow upon the human race, and since none of them were to be granted without her intercession, it was necessary, that She should know perfectly all the virtues, which She was to obtain for men, and that these blessings, next to God, their uncreated beginning, should flow from Her as from an original source.

即使上述行为不需要所有这些谨慎,但身为智慧之母是应该拥有谨慎的圣德,除了作为她至圣灵魂的装饰品外,还,因为她是诸宠中保和世界的主保。因为通过她的转求,可以获得天主要赐给人类的所有祝福,若没有她的转求,任何祝福都不会被授予世人,所以圣母必须完全了解她所拥有的所有圣德是为人类而获得的,而这些祝福将从天主–非受造之源头–的身旁,即圣母那里流出,一如初始之源头。

550. There are other helps, which are attached to the virtue of prudence and which are called potential parts, being as it were instruments with which prudence works. They are, synesis, or the aptitude and readiness to form sane judgments; eubulia, the faculty of giving and suggesting good counsel; gnome, which teaches what exceptions can justly be made to general rules; and this latter is necessary for the use of epikeia, which enables us to judge what particular cases are to be decided by rules higher than the ordinary.

550. 还有其他的帮助,它们附属于谨慎的美德,被称为潜在的部分,就像那能使谨慎起作用的工具一样。 它们是:承先启后的能力(synesis),形成明智判断的能力和准备;谋略(eubulia),提供和建议良好忠告的能力;(机智)gnome,它教导了对一般规则可以公正地做出哪些例外;而这后者与权宜措施(epikeia)一起使用是必要的,它使我们能够判断哪些特殊情况将由高于普通的规则来决定。

All these perfections and excellences adorned the prudence of most holy Mary, so that no one could give such unerring counsel in all possible contingencies, nor could any one, not even the most exalted angel, form such correct judgment in all things as She. Above all was our most prudent Queen skilled in the higher principles and rules of action, and such as were above the ordinary and common laws ; but it would require a long discourse even to mention the instances here : many of them will be understood in the sequel of this history of her most holy life.

所有这些成全和卓越都彰显了至圣玛利亚的智德,因此没有人能够在所有可能发生的事件中给出如此准确的忠告,也没有任何人,即使是最崇高的天使,也无法像她一样对所有事物做出正确的判断。最重要的是,我们最谨慎的元后精通更高的原则和行动规则,这些原则和规则高于普通和普遍法则;但即使提到这里的事例,也需要长篇大论:其中许多将在她至圣生活的这段历史的后续中得到理解。

In order to conclude this chapter on the prudence of the blessed Virgin, it is only necessary to say, that the rule by which it is to be measured, is none else than the prudence of the soul of Christ, our Lord ; for it was conformed and as similated entirely to his, since She was to be the Coadjutrix in all the works of wisdom and prudence, performed by the Lord of all creation and Savior of the world.

为了结束这一章关于圣童贞女的智德,只需要说,衡量它的标准无非就是我们的主基督灵魂的智德;因为它们完全一致和相似,因为她将成为创造之主和世界救主执行的所有智慧和智德工作的协助人。

 

INSTRUCTION VOUCHSAFED BY THE QUEEN OF HEAVEN.

天堂元后提出的指示

551. My daughter, I wish, that all that thou hast written and that thou hast understood in this chapter, be to thee an instruction and a reminder of what, I have taught thee for the government of thy actions. Write in thy heart and fix in thy mind the memory of all that thou hast learnt of my prudence in all that I have thought, desired and executed.

551. 我的女儿,我希望,你在本章中所写的和你所理解的,对你来说都是一个指示和提醒,我已经教过你管理你的行为。从我所想、所愿、和所行的智德中,将所学的写在你的心里,铭记在你的记忆里。

Let this light guide thee through the midst of the darkness of human ignorance, so that thou mayst not be disturbed or confounded by the luring passions, nor especially by the malice and snares laid thee by the watchful malice of thy enemies, seeking to infect thy understanding. Not to be endowed with all the perfections of prudence, is not culpable in the creature; but to be negligent in learning the rules of prudence after having been instructed how to attain this knowledge, is a serious fault and the cause of many mistakes and errors in the conduct of affairs.

让这光引导你穿过人类无知的黑暗,这样你就不会被诱人的情欲所困扰或迷惑,尤其不会被你的敌人的诡谲的恶意圈套和陷阱所扰乱或迷惑,牠试图败坏你的明悟。不被赋予所有谨慎的完美,对受造物是无罪的;但是,在被指示如何获得这种知识之后,却疏忽了学习智德的规则,这是一种严重的过错,并且会导致在处理事务时出现许多错误和偏差。

On account of this negligence the passions countermand, impede, and obstruct the dictates of prudence. This is especially the case with disorderly sorrow and excessive enjoyment, which are apt to pervert the just estimation of good or bad. Thence arise two dangerous vices: precipitation in our actions, impelling us to undertake things without considering the proper means of success, and inconstancy in our good resolutions and in the works once begun.

由于这种疏忽,情欲会反对、防碍和阻挠智德的指挥。尤其是无序的悲伤和过度的享受,容易扭曲对好坏的公正判断。 这就产生了两种危险的恶习:一是行动草率,迫使我们在做事时不考虑适当的成功方法;二是,我们有好的开始,有决心做好一件事,但却反复无常,无法坚持下去。

Ungoverned anger or indiscreet fervor, both cause us to be precipitate or remiss in many of our exterior actions, because they are performed without proper moderation and counsel. Hasty judgment and want of firmness in pursuing the good, cause the soul imprudently to desist from its laudable enterprise ; for it gives easy admittance to that, which is opposed to the true good, and is highly pleased, now with the true goodness, then again with what is but apparent and deceitful or is presented by the passions or by the demon.

无节制的愤怒或轻率的热情,都会使我们在许多外在行为中变得冲动或疏忽,因为这些行为是在没有适当的节制和建议的情况下进行的。在追求善的过程中,草率的判断和缺乏坚定的意志,会使灵魂轻率地停止其值得称赞的事业; 因为这坏秉性很容易承认那与真正的良善相反的东西,它时而对良善非常满意,时而又对那些表面的、欺骗性的、或由情欲或魔鬼表现出来的东西非常满意。  

552. Against all these dangers I wish to see thee watchful and provident ; and thou wilt be so, if  thou attend to the example, which I gave thee in my life, and if thou obey the instructions and counsels of thy spiritual guides; for without them thou must do nothing, if thou wishest to proceed with docile discretion. Be assured, that the Most High will give thee plentiful wisdom; for a pure submissive and docile heart will draw from Him superabundant aid.

552. 面对所有这些危险,我希望看到你保持警惕和谨慎;如果你遵守我在生活中给你的榜样,如果你服从你的神师的指导和忠告,你就会始终谨慎;因为如果你想以顺从的谨慎行事,没有它们你就什么也做不了。请放心,至高者会赐给你丰富的智慧;因为一颗纯真的顺服和温顺的心会从祂那里得到丰盛的帮助。

Keep in mind always the misfortune of the imprudent and foolish virgins, who, in their thoughtless negligence, rejected wise counsel and cast aside fear, instead of being solicitous; and when after wards they sought to make up for it, they found the portal of salvation closed against them (Matth. 25, 12).See to it, therefore, my daughter, that thou unite the simplicity of the dove with the prudence of the serpent, and then thy works shall be perfect.

永远记住那些轻率和糊涂的童女的不幸,因为她们粗心大意,拒绝了明智的童女建议,摒弃了敬畏,而不是关心;当她们试图弥补时,她们发现救恩的门户对她们关闭了(玛窦福音 25:12)。 因此,我的女儿,请注意将鸽子的单纯与蛇的谨慎结合起来,然后你的工作就会成全。

[经文〈玛窦福音25:12〉:他却答说:我实在告诉你们:我不认识你们。 ]

 


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下一篇:040天主的奥秘之城第一册第2卷第10章 关于至圣玛利亚所操练的义德
 

 


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