3 3 Then the chief priests and the elders of the people assembled in the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas,
5 But they said, ＂Not during the festival, 4 that there may not be a riot among the people.＂
12 6 In pouring this perfumed oil upon my body, she did it to prepare me for burial.
15 8 and said, ＂What are you willing to give me if I hand him over to you?＂ They paid him thirty pieces of silver,
17 On the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, 9 the disciples approached Jesus and said, ＂Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?＂
18 10 He said, ＂Go into the city to a certain man and tell him, 'The teacher says, ＂My appointed time draws near; in your house I shall celebrate the Passover with my disciples.＂'＂
21 And while they were eating, he said, ＂Amen, I say to you, one of you will betray me.＂ 11
25 13 Then Judas, his betrayer, said in reply, ＂Surely it is not I, Rabbi?＂ He answered, ＂You have said so.＂
27 Then he took a cup, gave thanks, 16 and gave it to them, saying, ＂Drink from it, all of you,
29 17 I tell you, from now on I shall not drink this fruit of the vine until the day when I drink it with you new in the kingdom of my Father.＂
30 18 Then, after singing a hymn, they went out to the
31 Then Jesus said to them, ＂This night all of you will have your faith in me shaken, 19 for it is written: 'I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be dispersed';
33 Peter said to him in reply, ＂Though all may have their faith in you shaken, mine will never be.＂
34 20 Jesus said to him, ＂Amen, I say to you, this very night before the cock crows, you will deny me three times.＂
37 He took along Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, 23 and began to feel sorrow and distress.
38 Then he said to them, ＂My soul is sorrowful even to death. 24 Remain here and keep watch with me.＂
39 He advanced a little and fell prostrate in prayer, saying, ＂My Father, 25 if it is possible, let this cup pass from me; yet, not as I will, but as you will.＂
41 Watch and pray that you may not undergo the test. 26 The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.＂
42 27 Withdrawing a second time, he prayed again, ＂My Father, if it is not possible that this cup pass without my drinking it, your will be done!＂
47 While he was still speaking, Judas, one of the Twelve, arrived, accompanied by a large crowd, with swords and clubs, who had come from the chief priests and the elders of the people.
49 Immediately he went over to Jesus and said, ＂Hail, Rabbi!＂ 28 and he kissed him.
55 29 At that hour Jesus said to the crowds, ＂Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs to seize me? Day after day I sat teaching in the temple area, yet you did not arrest me.
59 The chief priests and the entire Sanhedrin 32 kept trying to obtain false testimony against Jesus in order to put him to death,
60 but they found none, though many false witnesses came forward. Finally two 33 came forward
63 But Jesus was silent. 34 Then the high priest said to him, ＂I order you to tell us under oath before the living God whether you are the Messiah, the Son of God.＂
64 Jesus said to him in reply, ＂You have said so. 35 But I tell you: From now on you will see ‘the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Power' and 'coming on the clouds of heaven.'＂
65 Then the high priest tore his robes and said, ＂He has blasphemed! 36 What further need have we of witnesses? You have now heard the blasphemy;
67 37 Then they spat in his face and struck him, while some slapped him,
69 Now Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard. One of the maids came over to him and said, ＂You too were with Jesus the Galilean.＂
70 38 But he denied it in front of everyone, saying, ＂I do not know what you are talking about!＂
73 39 A little later the bystanders came over and said to Peter, ＂Surely you too are one of them; even your speech gives you away.＂
1 [1-28:20] The five books with alternating narrative and discourse (Matthew 3:1-25:46) that give this gospel its distinctive structure lead up to the climactic events that are the center of Christian belief and the origin of the Christian church, the passion and resurrection of Jesus. In his passion narrative (Matthew 26:26-27) Matthew follows his Marcan source closely but with omissions (e.g., Mark 14:51-52) and additions (e.g., Matthew 27:3-10, 19). Some of the additions indicate that he utilized traditions that he had received from elsewhere; others are due to his own theological insight (e.g., Matthew 26:28 ＂. . . for the forgiveness of sins＂; Matthew 27:52). In his editing Matthew also altered Mark in some minor details. But there is no need to suppose that he knew any passion narrative other than Mark's.
2 [1-2] When Jesus finished all these words: see the note on Matthew 7:28-29. ＂You know . . . crucified＂: Matthew turns Mark's statement of the time (Mark 14:1) into Jesus' final prediction of his passion. Passover: see the note on Mark 14:1.
3  Caiaphas was high priest from A.D. 18 to 36.
4  Not during the festival: the plan to delay Jesus' arrest and execution until after the festival was not carried out, for according to the synoptics he was arrested on the night of Nisan 14 and put to death the following day. No reason is given why the plan was changed.
6  To prepare me for burial: cf Mark 14:8. In accordance with the interpretation of this act as Jesus' burial anointing, Matthew, more consistent than Mark, changes the purpose of the visit of the women to Jesus' tomb; they do not go to anoint him (Mark 16:1) but ＂to see the tomb＂ (Matthew 28:1).
8  The motive of avarice is introduced by Judas's question about the price for betrayal, which is absent in the Marcan source (Mark 14:10-11). Hand him over: the same Greek verb is used to express the saving purpose of God by which Jesus is handed over to death (cf Matthew 17:22; 20:18; 26:2) and the human malice that hands him over. Thirty pieces of silver: the price of the betrayal is found only in Matthew. It is derived from Zechariah 11:12 where it is the wages paid to the rejected shepherd, a cheap price (Zechariah 11:13). That amount is also the compensation paid to one whose slave has been gored by an ox (Exodus 21:32).
10  By omitting much of Mark 14:13-15, adding My appointed time draws near, and turning the question into a statement, in your house I shall celebrate the Passover, Matthew has given this passage a solemnity and majesty greater than that of his source.
11  Given Matthew's interest in the fulfillment of the Old Testament, it is curious that he omits the Marcan designation of Jesus' betrayer as ＂one who is eating with me＂ (Mark 14:18), since that is probably an allusion to Ps 41, 10. However, the shocking fact that the betrayer is one who shares table fellowship with Jesus is emphasized in Matthew 26:23.
12  It would be better . . . born: the enormity of the deed is such that it would be better not to exist than to do it.
13  Peculiar to Matthew. You have said so: cf Matthew 26:64; 27:11. This is a half-affirmative. Emphasis is laid on the pronoun and the answer implies that the statement would not have been made if the question had not been asked.
14  See the note on Mark 14:22-24. The Marcan-Matthean is one of the two major New Testament traditions of the words of Jesus when instituting the Eucharist. The other (and earlier) is the Pauline-Lucan (1 Cor 11:23-25; Luke 22:19-20). Each shows the influence of Christian liturgical usage, but the Marcan-Matthean is more developed in that regard than the Pauline-Lucan. The words over the bread and cup succeed each other without the intervening meal mentioned in 1 Cor 11:25; Luke 22:20; and there is parallelism between the consecratory words (this is my body . . . this is my blood). Matthew follows Mark closely but with some changes.
15  See the note on Matthew 14:19. Said the blessing: a prayer blessing God. Take and eat: literally, Take, eat. Eat is an addition to Mark's ＂take it＂ (literally, ＂take＂; Mark 14:22). This is my body: the bread is identified with Jesus himself. Matthew 26:26-29
16 [27-28] Gave thanks: see the note on Matthew 15:36. Gave it to them . . . all of you: cf Mark 14:23-24. In the Marcan sequence the disciples drink and then Jesus says the interpretative words. Matthew has changed this into a command to drink followed by those words. My blood: see Lev 17:11 for the concept that the blood is ＂the seat of life＂ and that when placed on the altar it ＂makes atonement.＂ Which will be shed: the present participle, ＂being shed＂ or ＂going to be shed,＂ is future in relation to the Last Supper. On behalf of: Greek peri; see the note on Mark 14:24. Many: see the note on Matthew 20:28. For the forgiveness of sins: a Matthean addition. The same phrase occurs in Mark 1:4 in connection with John's baptism but Matthew avoids it there (Matthew 3:11). He places it here probably because he wishes to emphasize that it is the sacrificial death of Jesus that brings forgiveness of sins.
17  Although his death will interrupt the table fellowship he has had with the disciples, Jesus confidently predicts his vindication by God and a new table fellowship with them at the banquet of the kingdom.
21 [36-56] Cf Mark 14:32-52. The account of Jesus in
22  Gethsemane: the Hebrew name means ＂oil press＂ and designates an olive orchard on the western slope of the Mount of Olives; see the note on Matthew 21:1. The name appears only in Matthew and Mark. The place is called a ＂garden＂ in John 18:1.
26  Undergo the test: see the note on Matthew 6:13. In that verse ＂the final test＂ translates the same Greek word as is here translated the test, and these are the only instances of the use of that word in Matthew. It is possible that the passion of Jesus is seen here as an anticipation of the great tribulation that will precede the parousia (see the notes on Matthew 24:8; 24:21) to which Matthew 6:13 refers, and that just as Jesus prays to be delivered from death (Matthew 26:39), so he exhorts the disciples to pray that they will not have to undergo the great test that his passion would be for them. Some scholars, however, understand not undergo (literally, ＂not enter＂) the test as meaning not that the disciples may be spared the test but that they may not yield to the temptation of falling away from Jesus because of his passion even though they will have to endure it.
28  Rabbi: see the note on Matthew 23:6-7. Jesus is so addressed twice in Matthew (Matthew 26:25), both times by Judas. For the significance of the closely related address ＂teacher＂ in Matthew, see the note on Matthew 8:19.
29  Day after day . . . arrest me: cf Mark 14:49. This suggests that Jesus had taught for a relatively long period in
30 [57-68] Following Mark 14:53-65 Matthew presents the nighttime appearance of Jesus before the Sanhedrin as a real trial. After many false witnesses bring charges against him that do not suffice for the death sentence (Matthew 14:60), two came forward who charge him with claiming to be able to destroy the temple . . . and within three days to rebuild it (Matthew 14:60-61). Jesus makes no answer even when challenged to do so by the high priest, who then orders him to declare under oath . . . whether he is the Messiah, the Son of God (Matthew 26:62-63). Matthew changes Mark's clear affirmative response (Mark 14:62) to the same one as that given to Judas (Matthew 26:25), but follows Mark almost verbatim in Jesus' predicting that his judges will see him (the Son of Man) seated at the right hand of God and coming on the clouds of heaven (Matthew 26:64). The high priest then charges him with blasphemy (Matthew 26:65), a charge with which the other members of the Sanhedrin agree by declaring that he deserves to die (Matthew 26:66). They then attack him (Matthew 26:67) and mockingly demand that he prophesy (Matthew 26:68). This account contains elements that are contrary to the judicial procedures prescribed in the Mishnah, the Jewish code of law that dates in written form from ca. A.D. 200, e.g., trial on a feast day, a night session of the court, pronouncement of a verdict of condemnation at the same session at which testimony was received. Consequently, some scholars regard the account entirely as a creation of the early Christians without historical value. However, it is disputable whether the norms found in the Mishnah were in force at the time of Jesus. More to the point is the question whether the Matthean-Marcan night trial derives from a combination of two separate incidents, a nighttime preliminary investigation (cf John 18:13, 19-24) and a formal trial on the following morning (cf Luke 22:66-71).
33 [60-61] Two: cf Deut 19:15. I can destroy . . . rebuild it: there are significant differences from the Marcan parallel (Mark 14:58). Matthew omits ＂made with hands＂ and ＂not made with hands＂ and changes Mark's ＂will destroy＂ and ＂will build another＂ to can destroy and (can) rebuild. The charge is probably based on Jesus' prediction of the temple's destruction; see the notes on Matthew 23:37-39; 24:2; and John 2:19. A similar prediction by Jeremiah was considered as deserving death; cf Jeremiah 7:1-15; 26:1-8.
35  + You have said so: see the note on Matthew 26:25. From now on . . . heaven: the Son of Man who is to be crucified (cf Matthew 20:19) will be seen in glorious majesty (cf Psalm 110:1) and coming on the clouds of heaven (cf Daniel 7:13). The Power: see the note on Mark 14:61-62.
36  Blasphemed: the punishment for blasphemy was death by stoning (see Lev 24:10-16). According to the Mishnah, to be guilty of blasphemy one had to pronounce ＂the Name itself,＂ i.e. Yahweh; cf Sanhedrin 7, 4.5. Those who judge the gospel accounts of Jesus' trial by the later Mishnah standards point out that Jesus uses the surrogate ＂the Power,＂ and hence no Jewish court would have regarded him as guilty of blasphemy; others hold that the Mishnah's narrow understanding of blasphemy was a later development.
37 [67-68] The physical abuse, apparently done to Jesus by the members of the Sanhedrin themselves, recalls the sufferings of the Isaian Servant of the Lord; cf Isaiah 50:6. The mocking challenge to prophesy is probably motivated by Jesus' prediction of his future glory (Matthew 26:64).