1 1 There were also false prophets among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you, who will introduce destructive heresies and even deny the Master who ransomed them, bringing swift destruction on themselves.
2 Many will follow their licentious ways, and because of them the way of truth will be reviled.
3 In their greed they will exploit you with fabrications, but from of old their condemnation has not been idle and their destruction does not sleep.
4 2 3 For if God did not spare the angels when they sinned, but condemned them to the chains of Tartarus and handed them over to be kept for judgment;
5 4 and if he did not spare the ancient world, even though he preserved Noah, a herald of righteousness, together with seven others, when he brought a flood upon the godless world;
6 and if he condemned the cities of
7 and if he rescued
8 (for day after day that righteous man living among them was tormented in his righteous soul at the lawless deeds that he saw and heard),
9 then the Lord knows how to rescue the devout from trial and to keep the unrighteous under punishment for the day of judgment,
10 5 and especially those who follow the flesh with its depraved desire and show contempt for lordship. 6 Bold and arrogant, they are not afraid to revile glorious beings,
11 7 whereas angels, despite their superior strength and power, do not bring a reviling judgment against them from the Lord.
12 But these people, like irrational animals born by nature for capture and destruction, revile things that they do not understand, and in their destruction they will also be destroyed,
13 suffering wrong 8 as payment for wrongdoing. Thinking daytime revelry a delight, they are stains and defilements as they revel in their deceits while carousing with you.
14 Their eyes are full of adultery and insatiable for sin. They seduce unstable people, and their hearts are trained in greed. Accursed children!
15 Abandoning the straight road, they have gone astray, following the road of Balaam, the son of Bosor, 9 who loved payment for wrongdoing,
16 but he received a rebuke for his own crime: a mute beast spoke with a human voice and restrained the prophet's madness.
17 These people are waterless springs and mists driven by a gale; for them the gloom of darkness has been reserved.
18 For, talking empty bombast, they seduce with licentious desires of the flesh those who have barely escaped 10 from people who live in error.
19 They promise them freedom, though they themselves are slaves of corruption, for a person is a slave of whatever overcomes him.
20 For if they, having escaped the defilements of the world through the knowledge of (our) Lord and savior Jesus Christ, again become entangled and overcome by them, their last condition is worse than their first.
21 For it would have been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness than after knowing it to turn back from the holy commandment handed down 11 to them.
22 12 What is expressed in the true proverb has happened to them, ＂The dog returns to its own vomit,＂ and ＂A bathed sow returns to wallowing in the mire.＂
1 [1-3] The pattern of false prophets among the Old Testament people of God will recur through false teachers in the church. Such destructive opinions of heretical sects bring loss of faith in Christ, contempt for the way of salvation (cf 2 Peter 2:21), and immorality.
2 [4-6] The false teachers will be punished just as surely and as severely as were the fallen angels (2 Peter 2:4; cf Jude 1:6; Genesis 6:1-4), the sinners of Noah's day (2 Peter 2:5; Genesis 7:21-23), and the inhabitants of the cities of the Plain (2 Peter 2:6; Jude 1:7; Genesis 19:25). Whereas there are three examples in Jude 1:5-7 (Exodus and wilderness; rebellious angels;
3  Chains of Tartarus: cf Jude 1:6; other manuscripts in 2 Peter read ＂pits of Tartarus.＂ Tartarus: a term borrowed from Greek mythology to indicate the infernal regions.
4 [5-10a] Although God did not spare the sinful, he kept and saved the righteous, such as Noah (2 Peter 2:5) and Lot (2 Peter 2:7), and he knows how to rescue the devout (2 Peter 2:9), who are contrasted with the false teachers of the author's day. On Noah, cf Genesis 5:32-9:29, especially 7:1. On
5 [10b-22] Some take 2 Peter 2:10b, 11 with the preceding paragraph. Others begin the new paragraph with 2 Peter 2:10a, supplying from 2 Peter 2:9 The Lord knows how . . . to keep . . . under punishment, with reference to God and probably specifically Christ (2 Peter 2:1). The conduct of the false teachers is described and condemned in language similar to that of Jude 1:8-16. This arrogance knows no bounds; animal-like, they are due to be caught and destroyed. They seduce even those who have knowledge of Christ (2 Peter 2:20).
6 [10b] Glorious beings: literally, ＂glories＂; cf Jude 1:8. While some think that illustrious personages are meant or even political officials behind whom (fallen) angels stand, it is more likely that the reference is to glorious angelic beings (cf Jude 1:9).
7  From the Lord: some manuscripts read ＂before the Lord＂; cf Jude 1:9.
8  Suffering wrong: some manuscripts read ＂receiving a reward.＂ In their deceits: some manuscripts read ＂in their love feasts＂ (Jude 1:12).
9  Balaam, the son of Bosor: in Numbers 22:5, Balaam is said to be the son of Beor, and it is this name that turns up in a few ancient Greek manuscripts by way of ＂correction＂ of the text. Balaam is not portrayed in such a bad light in Numbers 22. His evil reputation and his madness (2 Peter 2:16), and possibly his surname Bosor, may have come from a Jewish tradition about him in the first/second century, of which we no longer have any knowledge.
10  Barely escaped: some manuscripts read ＂really escaped.＂
11  Commandment handed down: cf 2 Peter 3:2 and Jude 1:3.
12  The second proverb is of unknown origin, while the first appears in Proverb 26:11.