2 But exclude the outer court 2 of the temple; do not measure it, for it has been handed over to the Gentiles, who will trample the holy city for forty-two months.
3 I will commission my two witnesses 3 to prophesy for those twelve hundred and sixty days, wearing sackcloth.＂
4 These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands 4 that stand before the Lord of the earth.
5 5 If anyone wants to harm them, fire comes out of their mouths and devours their enemies. In this way, anyone wanting to harm them is sure to be slain.
6 They have the power to close up the sky so that no rain can fall during the time of their prophesying. They also have power to turn water into blood and to afflict the earth with any plague as often as they wish.
7 When they have finished their testimony, the beast that comes up from the abyss 6 will wage war against them and conquer them and kill them.
8 Their corpses will lie in the main street of the great city, 7 which has the symbolic names ＂Sodom＂ and ＂Egypt,＂ where indeed their Lord was crucified.
9 8 Those from every people, tribe, tongue, and nation will gaze on their corpses for three and a half days, and they will not allow their corpses to be buried.
13 At that moment there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell in ruins. Seven thousand people 9 were killed during the earthquake; the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven.
18 The nations raged, but your wrath has come, and the time for the dead to be judged, and to recompense your servants, the prophets, and the holy ones and those who fear your name, the small and the great alike, and to destroy those who destroy the earth.＂
19 Then God's temple in heaven was opened, and the ark of his covenant could be seen in the temple. There were flashes of lightning, rumblings, and peals of thunder, an earthquake, and a violent hailstorm.
1  The temple and altar symbolize the new
2  The outer court: the Court of the Gentiles. Trample . . . forty-two months: the duration of the vicious persecution of the Jews by Antiochus IV Epiphanes (Daniel 7:25; 12:7); this persecution of three and a half years (half of seven, counted as 1260 days in Rev 11:3; 12:6) became the prototype of periods of trial for God's people; cf Luke 4:25; James 5:17. The reference here is to the persecution by the Romans; cf Introduction.
3  The two witnesses, wearing sackcloth symbolizing lamentation and repentance, cannot readily be identified. Do they represent Moses and Elijah, or the Law and the Prophets, or Peter and Paul? Most probably they refer to the universal church, especially the Christian martyrs, fulfilling the office of witness (two because of Deut 19:15; cf Mark 6:7; John 8:17).
5 [5-6] These details are derived from stories of Moses, who turned water into blood (Exodus 7:17-20), and of Elijah, who called down fire from heaven (1 Kings 18:36-40; 2 Kings 1:10) and closed up the sky for three years (1 Kings 17:1; cf 18:1).
7  The great city: this expression is used constantly in Rev for Babylon, i.e., Rome; cf Rev 14:8; 16:19; 17:18; 18:2, 10, 21. ＂Sodom＂ and ＂Egypt＂: symbols of immorality (cf Isaiah 1:10) and oppression of God's people (cf Exodus 1:11-14). Where indeed their Lord was crucified: not the geographical but the symbolic Jerusalem that rejects God and his witnesses, i.e., Rome, called Babylon in Rev 16-18; see the note on Rev 17:9 and Introduction.
8 [9-12] Over the martyrdom (Rev 11:7) of the two witnesses, now called prophets, the ungodly rejoice for three and a half days, a symbolic period of time; see the note on Rev 11:2. Afterwards they go in triumph to heaven, as did Elijah (2 Kings 2:11).
9  Seven thousand people: a symbolic sum to represent all social classes (seven) and large numbers (thousands); cf Introduction.