7 2 The Jews answered,＂We have a law, and according to that law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God."
8 Now when Pilate heard this statement, he became even more afraid,
13 When Pilate heard these words he brought Jesus out and seated him 4 on the judge's bench in the place called Stone Pavement, in Hebrew, Gabbatha.
14 It was preparation day for Passover, and it was about noon. 5 And he said to the Jews,＂Behold, your king!"
16 Then he handed him over to them to be crucified. 6 So they took Jesus,
17 and carrying the cross himself 7 he went out to what is called the Place of the Skull, in Hebrew,
19 8 Pilate also had an inscription written and put on the cross. It read,＂Jesus the Nazorean, the King of the Jews."
23 9 When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they took his clothes and divided them into four shares, a share for each soldier. They also took his tunic, but the tunic was seamless, woven in one piece from the top down.
24 So they said to one another,＂Let's not tear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it will be," in order that the passage of scripture might be fulfilled (that says):＂They divided my garments among them, and for my vesture they cast lots." This is what the soldiers did.
25 10 Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary of Magdala.
28 After this, aware that everything was now finished, in order that the scripture might be fulfilled, 12 Jesus said,＂I thirst."
29 There was a vessel filled with common wine. 13 So they put a sponge soaked in wine on a sprig of hyssop and put it up to his mouth.
30 14 When Jesus had taken the wine, he said,＂It is finished." And bowing his head, he handed over the spirit.
31 Now since it was preparation day, in order that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath, for the sabbath day of that week was a solemn one, the Jews asked Pilate that their legs be broken and they be taken down.
34 15 but one soldier thrust his lance into his side, and immediately blood and water flowed out.
35 An eyewitness has testified, and his testimony is true; he knows 16 that he is speaking the truth, so that you also may (come to) believe.
1  Luke places the mockery of Jesus at the midpoint in the trial when Jesus was sent to Herod. Mark and Matthew place the scourging and mockery at the end of the trial after the sentence of death. Scourging was an integral part of the crucifixion penalty.
3  Friend of Caesar: a Roman honorific title bestowed upon high-ranking officials for merit.
4  Seated him: others translate＂(Pilate) sat down." In John's thought, Jesus is the real judge of the world, and John may here be portraying him seated on the judgment bench. Stone Pavement: in Greek lithostrotos; under the fortress Antonia, one of the conjectured locations of the praetorium, a massive stone pavement has been excavated. Gabbatha (Aramaic rather than Hebrew) probably means＂ridge, elevation."
5  Noon: Mark 15:25 has Jesus crucified＂at the third hour," which means either 9 A.M. or the period from 9 to 12. Noon, the time when, according to John, Jesus was sentenced to death, was the hour at which the priests began to slaughter Passover lambs in the temple; see John 1:29.
6  He handed him over to them to be crucified: in context this would seem to mean＂handed him over to the chief priests." Luke 23:25 has a similar ambiguity. There is a polemic tendency in the gospels to place the guilt of the crucifixion on the Jewish authorities and to exonerate the Romans from blame. But John later mentions the Roman soldiers (John 19:23), and it was to these soldiers that Pilate handed Jesus over.
7  Carrying the cross himself: a different picture from that of the synoptics, especially Luke 23:26 where Simon of Cyrene is made to carry the cross, walking behind Jesus. In John's theology, Jesus remained in complete control and master of his destiny (cf John 10:18). Place of the Skull: the Latin word for skull is Calvaria; hence＂
8  The inscription differs with slightly different words in each of the four gospels. John's form is fullest and gives the equivalent of the Latin INRI = Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum. Only John mentions its polyglot character (John 19:20) and Pilate's role in keeping the title unchanged (John 19:21-22).
9 [23-25a] While all four gospels describe the soldiers casting lots to divide Jesus' garments (see the note on Matthew 27:35), only John quotes the underlying passage from Psalm 22:19, and only John sees each line of the poetic parallelism literally carried out in two separate actions (John 19:23-24).
10  It is not clear whether four women are meant, or three (i.e., Mary the wife of Cl[e]opas [cf Luke 24:18] is in apposition with his mother's sister) or two (his mother and his mother's sister, i.e., Mary of Cl[e]opas and Mary of Magdala). Only John mentions the mother of Jesus here. The synoptics h, ave a group of women looking on from a distance at the cross (Mark 15:40).
11 [26-27] This scene has been interpreted literally, of Jesus' concern for his mother; and symbolically, e.g., in the light of the
13  Wine: John does not mention the drugged wine, a narcotic that Jesus refused as the crucifixion began (Mark 15:23), but only this final gesture of kindness at the end (Mark 15:36). Hyssop, a small plant, is scarcely suitable for carrying a sponge (Mark mentions a reed) and may be a symbolic reference to the hyssop used to daub the blood of the paschal lamb on the doorpost of the Hebrews (Exodus 12:22).
14  Handed over the spirit: there is a double nuance of dying (giving up the last breath or spirit) and that of passing on the holy Spirit; see John 7:39 which connects the giving of the Spirit with Jesus' glorious return to the Father, and John 20:22 where the author portrays the conferral of the Spirit.
15 [34-35] John probably emphasizes these verses to show the reality of Jesus' death, against the Docetist heretics. In the blood and water there may also be a symbolic reference to the Eucharist and baptism.
17 [38-42] In the first three gospels there is no anointing on Friday. In Matthew and Luke the women come to the tomb on Sunday morning precisely to anoint Jesus.